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The End Of Moral Order, Norman Stone
Transcript of The End Of Moral Order, Norman Stone
Glasgow, Scotland Professor
Adviser Glasgow Academy
First Class Honours in History, Cambridge University 1962
Central European History in Vienna and Budapest Professor of Modern History at
England Turkey Europe Transformed The End of Moral Order by Before 1870 The old "moral order" Poverty Illiteracy High Mortality rates Death rate > Birth rate But something has changed 1870-1900
"Classic Ages of Progress" DEVELOPMENT Printing techniques Transports Countryside's
modernization But the question is... WHY?! 1 - LIBERAL REVOLUTION Prosperity Success of Great Britain
Poverty and unruliness of the continent Status
Knowledge and education and with that... Tariffs abolishment No trade barriers Mandatory military service Liberals believed in... Centralization Efficiency Education and in... Constitutions Parliaments "Parliaments elected by men of economic weight and of education." Religion's abolishment Growth
towns Medicine 1870 Acceptance Until 1873 Enemies Belgium Russia Austria Germany 2 - THE GREAT DEPRESSION The conservatives, the radicals and
the clerical regimes won this time. Later 19th century European countries
richer than ever before All of a sudden, Interest rates fell Prices, profits and exports declined Unemployment Food prices fell
Producers doubled their output Decline of agriculture products
Hard work needed to "survive" which led to... Consequently Millions of people left the land or for the US either for the nearest
largest city ECONOMIC STAGNATION Russia Austria-Hungary Spain Italy Italy France Russia Austria-Hungary Spain unlike the... CONTINUING PROSPERITY Great Britain Germany Belgium 1870-1914
Vastly expanding populations Decreasing of death rates Increasing of birth rates Main aspects of the epoch Cheap transport Low cost of living High standards of education Shift from agriculture to industry Monetary stability Existence of "margin of consumption" In the 1930's
Interest rates went up
There was no margin of consumption World trade and employment got worse A political nightmare came in British and French investment Guaranteed international liquidity Avoided a collapse of trade TRANSFORMISM Politics Organized religions Age of the masses lost importance Classical vs Radical Old vs New Countryside vs Towns Radicals creation of their own enemies Socialism which responded to
proletariat threats hunger unemployment lack of medical
care Education Gender equality Social security Taxes on the rich Political catholicism Decline and adaptation to a new reality Jewish Migration where to? Germany Austria Hungary Marriage to nobility members Occupation of top military posts "Revolution" in Catholic world "Christian Social Party" Big problem for radicals Parties division Taxes PRO Unions of farmers and industrials CON Liberals international lower prices rising commodity prices Colonies Profits for some Increasing costs in army
and international disorder for others Liberal's opinion on colonies: Big place for state wasting money So, with all these information,
what we wanted to say is that... Europe Demographic
Development Death rates European populations increased
more than 20% European products
around the world Mariana Ascenso, 11677
Mª Francisca Ennes, 11731 Church Peasants Liberalism "Catholics wished to turn catholicism in a social direction."