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Copy of Chapter 6: Challenges to Spanish Authority (1560-1820s)
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 6: Challenges to Spanish Authority (1560-1820s)
1566 and 1568- Portuguese ships under the command of General Gonzalo de Pereira anchored in Cebu without Legazpi's permission and on both occassion asked Legazpi to leave. When he refused, Pereira blockaded Cebu to starve Spaniards but Legaspi and his men held their ground and forced to leave the Portuguese.
1570-Portuguese bombarded the Spanish settlment but they failed to dislodge.
1580-When Portugal became part of the Spanish empire, Portuguese incursions ceased.
The Dutch, inhabitants from Netherlands or Holland, also threatened also Spanish rule. Spain's power under King Charles I ang King Phillip II, Holland was part of Spanish Empire but because of a freedom-living people, Dutch revolted against Spain and proclaim independence in 1579. However, Spain refused to recognize independence of Holland.
1597-Holland sent an expedition to the East under the command of Admiral Oliver van Noort.
1610-second Dutch attack in Cuyo Islands.
1616-another Dutch fleet appeared near Manila and began to plunder vessels carrying foodstuff from the provinces to Manila.
1617-Battle of Playa Honda and Dutch defeated.
1648- Spain recognized the Holland's independence with the conclusion of Treaty of Westphalia.
1647- Last attack of Dutch in the Philippines
Portuguese and Dutch Threats
Lakan Dula- Legazpi's friend; he and his companions helped Legazpi to rebuild Manila.
Martin de Goiti- Legazpi'ssecond Master of Camp.
Governor Guido de Lavezares- succesor of de Legazpi as a governor-general.He lifted the exemption of Lakan Dula and his relatives from the tribute and forced labor.
1574- Lakan Dula led a revolt vs. Spaniards during the attack on Manila by the Chinese adventurer Limahong.
Juan de Salcedo and Fr. Geronimo Marin- persuaded Lakan Dula to lay down his arms. They promised to exempt him and his descendants form the payment of tribute and forced labor.
Lakan Dula believed them and ordered his men to return their home in peace. Fortunately, the general-governor pardoned him and gave him gifts of silk and gold.
Early Resistance in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
It happened in 1587 when a group of Filipinos in Tondo formed a secret society whose purpose to regain their freedom. It is known as the first Katipunan.
Magat Salamat- Lakan Dula's son.
Agustin de Legazpi- Magat Salamat's nephew.
Juan Banal- Chief of Tondo.
Pedro Balingit- Chief of Pandacan.
The plot spread throughout Central Luzon and as far as in Cuyo Islands. The Society's plan was to have a Christian Japanese ally to brought the Japanese weapons and soldiers. Agustin de Legazpi would be proclaim King of the Philippines if they won in revolution. The plan seemed good, but it was aborteed due to spies reported to the Spanish authorities immediately. The leaders were arrested and executed.
The Tondo "Conspiracy"
Magalat- he rose in revolt vs. Spanish rule in 1596 in Cagayan.
Although it was quelled, the Filipino rebels continued their opposition to the Spaniards. The governor-general sent a contigent composed of Spaniards and filipino recruits against Magalat but the Ilocanos fought bravely but the Magalat's group won.The Spanish authorities thought of another way to get rid of him by hiring of a Filipino assassin to murder Magalat. The plan succeded and Magalat was killed.
The Revolt of Magalat
Pedro Ladia- a native of Borneo who came to Bulacan to lead an armed uprising vs. Spaniards. He is a man who claiming to be a descendant of Lakan Dula which was tried to instigate a revolt in 1643.
He proclaimed "King of Tagalogs" if they succeded. His plan rached the friar-curate of Malolos who dissuaded the town people fro believing Ladia and he remained faithful of the church and King of Spain. The friar-curate notified the Spanish Authorities of Ladia's Activities. He was arrested, sent to Manila and Executed.
Central Luzon- had the center of discontent in the country
Francisco Maniago- leader of Kapampangans declared war vs. Spaniards.
This revolt sought to destroy the Spanish power and to declare that the people of Central Luzon were free and independent and also caused by the abuses of the Spanish officials who refused to pay for the food they had taken from the Filipinos.
The governor-general, fearing other towns might follow Maniago's example, conferred with the chief of Arayat, Juan Macapagal, who promised to help the Spaniards quell the revolt. The leader of Kapampangans sent an emissary to the governor-general in order to make peace and make the following demands:
For the governor-general to pardon all those who participated in the revolt.
The Kampampangans to receive the sum of PHP200,000 as payment for the rice which the Spaniards seized from their barangays, PHP14,000 was paid as down payment and the remainder of the total amount to be paid installment
For the Kampampangans to continue to cut timber, as required by the law on the forced labor, but they would be given sufficient time to perform duties at home.
The governor-general accepted these demands and Maniago, satisfied, laid down his arms. The revolt was a success.
The Revolt of Maniago
Andres Malong- a native of Binalatongan(now San Carlos), led the revolt.
The revolt spread to the whole Pangasinan and in the course of the disturbance. Because of this many Spaniards including the provincial governor, were killed and he proclaimed himself "King of Pangasinan". He appointed officials in the areas under him. He urged people of the Ilocos, Zambales and Cagayan to take up arms vs. Spanish Government. By sending his own soldiers to other provinces, He weakened his position. The government forces pursued Malong which was he defeated and captured. He was executed for having been a traitor to Spain.
1762- the people of Binalatongan, Dagupan, Calasiao, Santa Barbara, Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Malasiki and Paniqui in Pangasinan rose in arms over the imposition of tribute. Led by Juan dela Cruz Palaris, the uprising lasted a year and came to be known as the Palaris revolts.
The Revolt of Malong
Bancao- a chieftain of Limasawa
He led a revolt against the Soaniards because of the intolerance of the friars.
Legazpi befriended Bancao who had given him foo and other supplies. He became a Christian and a loyal subject of the Spanish King but he returned to the religion of his forefathers. Because of this, the Spanish friar-curate of his town hated him as he convinced a lot of natives to go back their original faith. The natives stopped going to church, which led the friar-curate to seek help from the governor of Cebu to help restore Spanish influence on the Warays. This led to incite people to rise in arms vs. them. The provincial governor of Cebu sent troops and defeated Bancao, who died in fighting.
The Revolt of Bancao
Agustin Sumuroy- Palapag, Samar leader and revolted against the Spanish government.
The friar-curate of Palapag was killed and soon the fire of discontent swept other towns and islands. The revolt spread to Mindanao, Camarines and Albay. The governor-general in Manila was alarmed at the sprad of the revolt. He sent an expedition in Samar and Sumuroy fought bravely and won over the Spanish-Filipino forces. In 1650, the government sent a strong army contigent and engaged Sumuroy in a battle. He was defeated, captured and captured.
Tapar- he led the uprisings in Oton, Panay in 1663.
Dagohoy-one of the longest rebellion, from 1744 to 1829. He is set up his own government in the nmountains with some 20000 followers obeying his orders and practicing theirnown faith.
The Revolt of Sumuroy
The succeeding rebellions in Luzon were clearly economic in nature.
1700s- friar estates and hacienda system was dramatically expanded due to demand by the galleon trade for agricultural products.
1702- violent uprisings in Tondo, Binan and Silang due to the loss of pasture lands and agricultural lands.
1743- Pasig, Taguig, Paranaque and parts of Cavitewere up in arms due to their lack of access to rivers and forests.
1745- haciendas in Bulacan were burned and their friar-owners killed.
Diego and Gabriela Silang- they led a widespread revolt in IIocos Sur on the issue of the rightto engage in the galleon trade non-Spaniards or Indios
1807-the Basi revolt in Ilocos Norte erupted over the issue of government monopoly on the production, pricing and sale of basi.
More rebellions in Luzon
Maingel- a warrior-leader and expert in headhunting.
between 1591 and 1608- The Spaniards sent expeditions to the Cordilleras but they failed due to fierce resistance by the taong bundok
Pangangayao- headhunting expeditions for lumads.
Lumads- another term for those who remained non-Christian and non-Muslim after the colonialization.
Resistance in the Interior and Mountainous Parks
Certainly, the longest and bloodies attempt by the Spaniards was the colonialization and Christianization of the Muslim. In other words, the process did not only take the longest, but the most frustrating for them. The Muslims in the country remained unconquered and unconverted until the the end of Spanish rule.
Moro- the term used by the Spanish for the Muslims, who also ruled their contry for more than 400 years.
It was the first encounter vs. Spaaniards
1569-Martin de Goiti and Bornean traders took place in Cebu.
1571 to 1572- Manila could hardly be called a Muslim kingdom.
No sultanate evolved in Luzon or in the Visayas. However, Islam penetrated the South and spread throughout Mindanao. Two Sultanates were eventually set up, one in Sulu and another in the Maguindanao-Cotabato area.
The ties between Brunei and the sultanates would continue despite the Spanish conquest of Manila. In fact, the new government in Maila had to send troops to Borneo three times(1576,1578,1588) to put an end to their trading activities and military expeditions by the Spaniards directed at Sulu and Maguindanao. The Spaniards could only put up forts as defenses for their small territories gains as outposts, one in Jolo and another in Zamboanga.
Sultan Kudarat- capable leader that Maguindanao and Sulu united as confederacy. This event forced the Spaniards to finally withdraw from the place and focus on Luzon.
After Sultan Kudarat's death in 1671, the raiding activities slackened. The two sultanates , again, engaged each other in battles over the issue of trade and supremacy in that area.
1716 to 1747-Spain cmae back in South area. Their victory allowed them to build forts in Iligan and CDO.
1762 to 1764- the Moros forced to give up part of Palawan and the Sabah on a lease basiss during the British Occupation.
1851- the Moro leadership finally entered into a treaty with Governor-General Urbiztondo.
1898-they remained sovereign at the end of Spanish rule.
How were the Muslims able to do this?
The Spanish force lacked the number and military capacityto break through Moro kuta.
Mindanao is far from Manila
the Spaniards were more preoccupied in several fronts with wars by the Portugues, Durch and various provinces in Luzon and Visayas and
Islam Provided the Spaniards and identifiable enemy called "Moros"
The Moro Wars in the South
Reasons for the General Failure of the Revolts
sangleys-meant ''traders who came and went.
The Chinese Presence
The Spaniards possessed superior weapons and were able to employ native volunteers or mercenary soldiers.
The people remained divided and lacked unity, despite a centralized form of government and a geographic identity had been established in the country due to the zeal and clever use by the Spaniards which kept the strong if not intact regionalistic tendencies of the people.
The giving of positions of power and privileges to the chieftains and their families by the Spanish authorities, weakened unity among the people and prevented the birth of leaders that could consolidate the many revolts. disconnected and isolated from each other they may be.
The lack of a concept of a nation.