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IEFA and The Essential Understandings

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Sarah Pierce

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of IEFA and The Essential Understandings

IEFA and The Essential Understandings
Regarding MT Indians

Mike Jetty and Sarah Pierce


General Background Information

Essential Understandings Overview

IEFA Resources

Quiz



Workshop Topics


The division works to promote and uphold Indian Education for All, so that ALL Montanans learn about the “distinct and unique heritage of American Indians”

The division works to improve the academic experience for American Indian students by closing the achievement gap that exists between Indian and non-Indian students, decreasing drop-out rates and creating school environments that promote success


The Role of the Indian Education Division

Section 1

(1) It is the goal of the people to establish a system
of education which will develop the full educational potential
of each person. Equality of educational opportunity is guaranteed
to each person of the state.

(2) The state recognizes the distinct and unique cultural heritage
of the American Indians and is committed in its educational
goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity.



Article X of the Montana Constitution
Education and Public Lands (1972)

Colorado, Maine, and South Dakota

Essential Understandings and Standards –
modeled after Montana’s

National Museum of the American Indian – Smithsonian

working to develop national Essential Understandings

Numerous articles in academic research journals /
dissertations – international impact


Indian Education for All – effects beyond MT…



Indian Education For All is not about blaming people, or making them feel guilty.
It’s about teaching us all to include each other when we think about the world, and about our place in it. It is about getting rid of the biases that we’ve all inherited, and looking at each other as fellow human beings, and not as a collection of stereotypes. And students get it. They really get it.” Indian Education ‘Coach,’ Great Falls




Quotes from MT Educators

1999, OPI brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings.

Some of the major issues all tribes have in common.

Form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives.

Essential Understandings Regarding Montana’s American Indians

1999, OPI brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings.

Some of the major issues all tribes have in common.

Form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives.

Essential Understandings Regarding Montana’s American Indians

“Although deceptively simple, the Essential Understandings are, in fact, highly complex statements that encompass not only the diversity found among and within tribes, but also political, historical, and contemporary issues, as well as ontological and epistemological aspects.”

An Australian Observation…

“They are, moreover, principles that allow for wide-ranging discussion about Indigenous peoples in global, national, state-wide, and specific tribal contexts.”
“…the Essential Understandings provide a blueprint for action that is underpinned by genuine collaborative effort on the part of all stakeholders.”
-Indigenous Studies: A Matter of Social Justice; A Matter of Urgency (Nado Aveling, 2012)

EU 1– Tribal Diversity
EU 2 – Individual Diversity
EU 3 – Beliefs, Spirituality, Oral Hist.
EU 4 – Reservations – land reserved
EU 5 – Federal Indian Policy
EU 6 – History from Indian Perspectives
EU 7 – Tribal Sovereignty

Activity


The 7 Essential Understandings

There is great diversity among the 12 tribal Nations of Montana in their languages, cultures, histories and governments.
Each Nation has a distinct and unique cultural heritage that contributes to modern Montana.


What does this mean?
How does it apply to my content area/grade level? What content standards might apply?




Essential Understanding #1

There is great diversity among individual American Indians as identity is developed, defined and redefined by many entities, organizations and people. There is a continuum of Indian identity ranging from assimilated to traditional and is unique to each individual. There is no generic Indian.

What does this mean?
How does it apply to my content area/grade level? What content standards might apply?





Essential Understanding #2

The ideologies of Native traditional beliefs and spirituality persist into modern day life as tribal cultures, traditions and languages are still practiced by many American Indian people and are incorporated into how tribes govern and manage their affairs.

Additionally, each tribe has their own oral history beginning with their origin that is as valid as written histories. These histories pre-date the “discovery” of North America.



Essential Understanding #3



Reservations are land that have been reserved by the tribes for their own use through treaties and was not “given” to them. The principle that land should be acquired from the Indians only through their consent with treaties…






Essential Understanding #4


There were many federal policies put into place throughout American history that have impacted Indian people and shape who they are today. Much of Indian history can be related through several major federal policy periods.

What does this mean?
How does it apply to my content area/grade level? What content standards might apply?



Essential Understanding #5

Model Lessons exist for all Federal Indian Policy Periods

Colonization,
Treaty Period,
Allotment Period,
Boarding School,
Tribal Reorganization,
Termination/Relocation and
Self Determination.


History is a story and most often related through the subjective experience of the teller. Histories are being rediscovered and revised. History told from an Indian perspective conflicts with what most of mainstream history tell us.

What does this mean?
How does it apply to my content area/grade level? What content standards might apply?




Essential Understanding #6

Tribes That Discovered
Lewis and Clark


Under the American legal system, Indian tribes have sovereign powers separated and independent from the federal and state governments. However, the extent and breadth of tribal sovereignty is not the same for each tribe.

Tribal Sovereignty is what makes Indians unique from all other minority groups



Essential Understanding #7

Montana Tribal Histories: Educators Resource Guide and Companion DVD

Developed by Julie Cajune



Provides brief MT Tribal Histories Narratives – draws upon information from Tribal Histories developed by MT Tribes
Provides a basic foundation of the historic storyline of tribes for core content guidance
Includes classroom activities, model lesson plans and a DVD – films, primary source documents

MT Tribal Histories Guide

Professional Development onsite and online

All Montanans will understand the role that American Indians played in American and Montana history (including contemporary issues/efforts).

All Montanans will have a basic understanding of tribal sovereignty, tribal governments, and be able to discuss issues of tribal – state and tribal-federal relations.

American Indian students in Montana will see themselves reflected in their schools, curriculum, books, and tests.



What will Montana look like when Indian Education for All is fully implemented?

here we gave them a blank map and asked them to label the reservations and the tribes that were located there
Full transcript