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The First Americans
Transcript of The First Americans
First People to the Americas
It is believed that the first Americans crossed a land bridge connecting Asia and Alaska (known as Beringia) as many as 30,000 years ago.
Lived in what is today Northeastern US
Iroquois League formed (maybe as early as 1100s) between Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations
VOCAB TO KNOW!
indigenous = native; original inhabitant
BC = Before Christ (OR BCE = Before the Common Era)
AD = Anno Domini (OR CE = Common Era)
With time, people learned to plant and raise crops, leading to the first permanent civilizations:
First permanent civilization (Olmec) emerged about 1500BC in Southern Mexico
Maya and Aztec later developed in Mexico & Central America
Cahokia was one of the largest Native American cities from 600-1400AD, located along the Mississippi River near what is today St. Louis
Larger than any European city of the 1200s and any city in the US until 1800
Contains 120+ earthen mounds on this site
About AD 300, the Hohokam and Anasazi began farming in what is today
a complex system of dams, irrigation canals & reservoirs was important for storing water in the desert
Southwest: The Anasazi and Hohokam
Mesa Verde, Colorado
Capital of Tenochtitlan established in 1325AD
Built floating islands for their crops, called chinampas
Dominated South America during the 15th and 16th centuries
Machu Picchu possibly built as a royal retreat?
The Incan Empire
After Columbus, many Spanish conquistadors followed
Hernan Cortes defeated Aztecs in 1521
Francisco Pizarro conquered Incans 11 years later
Spanish also settled to farm, mine, ranch and spread Catholicism in North America
The English began exploration soon after but didn't establish a permanent colony until Jamestown in 1607
England's first successful colony in North America (1607)
Goal: to find gold / to make money
Problem: Such a strong focus on money that they did not know how to prepare for their own survival
How did the Jamestown Colony find success?
What's the difference here?
Founded by the Puritans – a religious group who felt the Church of England retained too many Catholic traditions and needed to be purified.
Led by the Mayflower in 1620, Puritans came to the colonies looking for freedom to practice the religion they wanted to practice.
Puritan life centered around work and prayer and the Church was at the center of community and political life.
Serpent's Mound, Ohio, built in approx. 1070
By 1492, Native Americans had established a wide array of cultures and languages. Some 500 tribes inhabited what is now the United States, totaling about 22 million people.
West African Society around 1492
One of the first universities in the world was founded in Timbuktu which enabled all citizens to have free heath care and education
Long established trade routes brought both goods and Islam into the areas of West Africa