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Flashback and Foreshadowing

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Sandy Wood Bairfield

on 26 February 2015

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Transcript of Flashback and Foreshadowing

Dissecting the Short Story and Novel:
Elements of Fiction - Part 2
Review of Narrator, Point of View, Theme, Flashback, Foreshadowing Mood & Tone
An automobile accident occurs. Two drivers are involved. Witnesses include four sidewalk spectators, a policeman, a man with a video camera who happened to be shooting the scene, and the pilot of a helicopter that was flying overhead. Here we have nine different points of view and, most likely, nine different descriptions of the accident.
Because the people are all in different locations, they see different angles and parts of the accident.
Point of View is how a person or character looks at, or views, an object or a situation

P.O.V. is the
from which the story is told. POV/Perspective can change depending on physical location or knowledge of events and characters.
Remember, every story has a narrator, who is telling the story from his or her own point of view.
YOU are the narrator of your own life story!
In fiction, the tone and feel of the story, and even its meaning, can change radically depending on who is telling the story and that person's point of view.

Point of View

narrator is the

person or voice who tells the story
. D
o not look at dialogue (inside " ") to find out the narrator.

A narrator determines the point of view (P.O.V.)
Think about who the narrator is and how much that narrator knows to help you determine the story's p.o.v.
First Person
Point of View Narrator:
narrator is a character in the story
, usually the protagonist.
Narrator refers to self & uses pronouns:
I, me, we, us.
The reader only knows what the narrator knows or feels.
There are three different points of view:
In the movie
"Ferris Bueller's Day Off,"
Ferris is an example of a First Person P.O.V. Narrator. Notice how he uses "I" and talks directly to the audience.
Omniscient Third Person
P.O.V. Narrator:
Omniscient = all-knowing
narrator knows every character’s thoughts, feelings, and actions
narrator is someone outside the story—not a character, only a voice
When referring to the characters, this voice uses their names and pronouns such as
she, he, they
to tell the story.
“The Princess Bride,"
the grandfather is the omniscient narrator.
e is telling the story of a Princess, the man she loves,
nd their adventures. The grandfather knows the story (because he's read the book before) and what will happen to the characters; he knows the thoughts, feelings, and actions of all characters in the book.
Limited Third Person
P.O.V. Narrator:
the narrator may or may not participate in the action of the story as one of the characters
. Either way
the narrator lets us know exactly what goes on and how the main character feels – only the main character.
This narrator observes what is happening and describes his observations to the reader, but
is limited to knowing only one character’s thoughts and feelings.
We learn about the characters through this outside voice.
When referring to the characters, this voice uses
their names and
such pronouns as
she, he, they
to tell the story.
Cheat Sheet
Narrator refers to self as "I" & is a character =
Narrator knows everything about all the characters =

Narrator may or may not be a character but tells story of other characters
See if you can figure out the point of view of each passage. Look at pronouns the narrator uses and how much the narrator knows.
"Stranger Than Fiction,"
the narrator tells the story of Harold Crick. She, the author of Harold Crick's life story, tells the audience what happens in Harold's life- as he lives it- as well as shares his feelings. This narrator is an example of a Third Person Narrator P.O.V.
Omniscient Third Person
Which POV is used?
First Person
Third Person

1. Julie watched Tom go and didn’t try to stop him. Now, she wished she had told him how very much she loved him. Tom hoped she would call or stop by to see him before he left; but she didn’t and they never saw each other again.
2. I watched him go and didn’t try to stop him. Now, I wish I had told him how very much I loved him. Tom moved, and I never saw him again.
3. Julie watched Tom go and didn’t try to stop him. Now, she bawled. She probably wished she had told him how very much she loved him. Tom moved and she never saw him again.
What exactly is this elusive thing called theme?
The theme of a fable

(extremely short story meant to teach a lesson) is its
The theme of a piece of fiction is its
view about life and how people behave.
In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach or preach. In fact, it is not presented directly at all. (Very rarely will the author come right out and tell you the lesson to be learned.) You extract it from the characters, action, and setting that make up the story. In other words,
you must figure out the theme yourself
(This is a good thing! It means
there can be multiple themes (lessons) for one story/movie.
As long as you can
find evidence from the story to support your theme, you're good!
Theme should not be confused with the topic or storyline of the story.
Take, for example, the story of "The Little Mermaid." The storyline is a mermaid falls in love with a human, which infuriates her father. In order to be with her love, the mermaid trades her voice for a human body. In the (Disney) version, the villain loses, the mermaid's voice is restored, her father forgives her and grants her a human body, and the mermaid and human man live happily ever after. In the Hans Christian Anderson version, Ariel is turned into a sea sponge as her punishment. The topic of this fairy tale is Love.
The themes of this story could include: "Follow your heart;" or "Be careful what you wish for;" or "If you sacrifice, you will be rewarded."
Often movies have a
song. This is a song that is particular to that story - written especially for the movie- that connects to the plot and mood of the story.
Theme songs are often instrumental music only - meaning, there are no lyrics.
When the audience hears the theme song, they often conjure the images from the movie.
Theme Songs
For example, listen to the theme song for "The Little Mermaid." How does this music connect to the plot and mood of the story?
(Also, note that the theme song is played during the movie's

opening scene and throughout the movie.)
So what is theme??
One man's pleasure may be another's pain.
(What’s fun for you may not be fun for others)
The Boys and the Frogs
Some boys, playing near a pond, saw a number of Frogs in the water and began to pelt them with stones. The boys killed several of them, when one of the Frogs, lifting his head out of the water, cried out: "Pray stop, my boys: what is sport to you is death to us."
The Frogs and the Well
Two Frogs lived together in a marsh. But one hot summer the marsh dried up, and they left it to look for another place to live in: for frogs like damp places if they can get them. By and by they came to a deep well, and one of them looked down into it, and said to the other, "This looks like a nice cool place. Let us jump in and settle here."

But the other frog, who had a wiser head on his shoulders, replied, "Not so fast, my friend. Supposing this well dried up like the marsh, how should we get out again?"
Look before you leap. (Think Before You Act)
Frog in a Milk-Pail
A frog was hopping around a farmyard when it decided to investigate the barn. Being somewhat careless, and maybe a little too curious, he ended up falling into a pail half-filled with fresh milk. As he swam about attempting to reach the top of the pail, he found that the sides of the pail were too high and steep to reach. He tried to stretch his back legs to push off the bottom of the pail but found it too deep.But this frog was determined not to give up, and he continued to struggle. He kicked and squirmed and kicked and squirmed, until at last, all his churning about in the milk had turned the milk into a big hunk of butter. The butter was now solid enough for him to climb onto and get out of the pail!

Never Give Up! or Hard Work Pays Off!
Theme is the
life lesson to be learned.
The theme of a book is a universal
idea or message
that stretches through an entire story.
Practice Identifying Themes
Frog Fables
It must be able to apply to any situation or person anywhere, i.e. it’s
universal and generally stated
- for all people anywhere.
Remember: A story’s theme can also be called a
Most themes deal with the topics of: Love, Death, Birth, Journeys,
Acceptance and Challenge.
Triangle of Truth for THEME:
Let's summarize the key points of theme.
What are the three most important things to know in order to understand what theme is?
the life lesson
it's universal
the author's message about human behavior
Check out the title. Sometimes it tells you a lot about the theme.

Notice repeating patterns and symbols. Sometimes these lead you to the theme.

What are the detail in the story? What greater meaning may they have?
Remember that theme, plot, and structure are inseparable, all helping to inform and reflect back on each other. Also, be aware that a theme we determine from a story never completely explains the story. It is simply one of the elements that make up the whole.
Again, a story can have multiple themes.
Here are some ways to uncover the theme in a story:
Theme is a
generally stated lesson
the reader/audience can learn from the story.
Theme is NOT particular to one story, meaning theme is not specific to one story.
Some popular and easily recognized theme songs include those for the movies "Jaws," "Indiana Jones," and "Star Wars."
Video games and TV shows also have theme songs. Theme songs are often repeated throughout the movie/game at the most exciting parts.
Remember: the theme(s) are not specific to the fable or the characters. They should be worded as general life lessons.
How do the Narrator and P.O.V. work together?
When you tell a story to someone, you create a narrator, a voice for that particular story.
narrator/voice tells the story for you
, describing the people, setting, and situations for your audience, the readers.
They hear the whole story from your narrator's P.O.V. and they know only what the narrator tells them
Perspective changes everything.
P.O.V. is how you view the world.
It's how the narrator views the characters and plot.
How are Omniscient Third person and Limited Third POV Narrators different?
Omniscient narrators know EVERY characters' thoughts, feelings, and actions, but Limited Third Person narrators know ONLY ONE character's thoughts, feelings, and actions.
A Regular Third Person narrator just knows the actions and words, no thoughts and feelings.
It looks like two guys standing up looking at a guy sit/squatting while reading the paper, right?
Nope! It's two guys propping themselves up on one arm while looking at a guy lying on the ground!
Nom Nom Nom!!!
She's eating the car????
One day the father of a very wealthy family sent his son on a trip to the country with the express purpose of showing him how poor people live. The son spent a couple of days and nights on the farm of what would be considered a very poor family.
Upon his return from the trip, the father asked his son, "How was the trip?"
"It was great, dad."
"Did you see how poor people live?" the father asked.
"Oh yeah." said the son.
"So, tell me, what did you learn from the trip?" asked the father.
The son answered, "I saw that we have one dog and they had four. We have a pool that reaches to the middle of our garden and they have a creek that has no end. We have imported lanterns in our garden and they have the stars at night. Our patio reaches to the front yard and they have the whole horizon. We have a small piece of land to live on and they have fields that go beyond our sight. We have servants who serve us, but they serve others. We buy our food, but they grow theirs. We have walls around our property to protect us; they have friends to protect them."
The boy's father was speechless. Then his son added, "Thanks dad for showing me how poor we really are."
Isn't perspective a wonderful thing? Makes you wonder what would happen if we all gave thanks for everything we have,
instead of worrying about what we don't have.
A Story on Perspective
Why use it? Foreshadowing creates
duh duh duh duhhhhhhhh!
How is it used?
The play is full of foreshadowing in the form of bad omens, including lightning and thunder, the walking dead, and lions stalking through the city. Additionally, the Soothsayer (Fortune Teller) warns Caesar to “Beware the Ides of March” (March 15th), which is the day Caesar is murdered.
Example in Literature – Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar
Example in Movies -
Star Wars
Sometimes, authors give
that suggest events that have yet to occur in the story.

Foreshadowing is the hints or clues.
How is it used?
Yoda feels a negative force surrounding Anakin and, therefore, does not think he should be trained as a Jedi knight (Anakin later becomes Darth Vader); C-3PO calls Luke “Sir Luke”; Obi-Wan tells Luke that their destinies lie along different paths; Luke sees his own face in Vader’s helmet in his vision on Dagobah.
A flashback is an interruption in the present action of the plot to go
back in time
to show the reader events that happened
the time currently being written about, to share significant events that happened at some past time in the character’s life.
Flashback =
is a quick glimpse;
means at a time in the past.
Why use it?
Flashbacks add depth to your characters and story; they add suspense to your plot. Through flashbacks, you can convey to your reader the reasons why a certain character acts the way he does.
Example in Literature – Charles Dickens’s “A Christmas Carol”
How is it used?
Scrooge and the Spirit of Christmas Past revisit Scrooge’s childhood and young adulthood. In these flashbacks, the reader learns why Scrooge is so angry and cantankerous.
Example in Movies -
How is it used?
The entire story is told in flashback through the eyes of Rose, an old woman and survivor of the Titanic. Rose tells the tale of the fateful voyage, when, as a 17-year old girl, she is taken back to American with her wealthy fiance.
Then...you're finished!

Now, complete the Flashback and Foreshadowing Practice on your handout!
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