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Copy of The French and Indian War
Transcript of Copy of The French and Indian War
The Seven Years War was the first truly world war with fighting between the two countries taking place in North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Europe.
In the United States, we call it the
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War was fought mainly over the rich resources of the Ohio River Valley.
The First World War
Native American Viewpoints
In September 1759, the British set their eyes on the capital of New France: Quebec. The city was thought to be invincible because it sat high on a rocky cliff.
The British army found a secret path up the cliff.
They climbed the steep face of the mountain, overran the French guards, and assembled on a plain outside the fortified city called the Plains of Abraham.
The British army ambushed the city, defeating the French and taking their capital city.
The Tide Turns
The First Battles
The French and Indian War
The First World War
The first years of the war went terribly for the British and their American colonists.
The French captured several British forts.
The French Native American allies raided colonial villages from New York south to western Virginia.
They killed settlers, destroyed crops and farms, and chased settlers back from the frontier.
What might have caused the British to do so terribly at the start of the war?
The British Aren't Doing So Hot
A New Man in Charge
In 1756, William Pitt became secretary of state for Great Britain and then Prime Minister.
Pitt changed the focus of the war from Europe to North America.
Encouraged the use of tactics that worked better in the wilderness and frontier.
He took advantage of many Indian groups abandoning the French.
With Pitt's newly focused war effort, the British began to see successes on the battlefield with the recapture of several British forts.
One year after the defeat of Quebec, the British capture Montreal and fighting in North America ends.
Great Britain, France and their ally Spain, sign the Treaty of Paris.
The Treaty of Paris of 1763
Ohio River Valley
At the beginning of the French and Indian War, many Native American tribes were faced with a tough choice...do we support the French or the British?
Which side would you choose?
The British sent General Edward Braddock from England to drive the French out of the OH River Valley.
One of his closest aides is 21 year old Colonel George Washington of the Virginia militia.
Following Washington's failed attempt to remove the French, in June 1755, Braddock sets out from Virginia with about 1,400 British troops and militia.
On the way to Fort Duquesne, the British army is ambushed by French soldiers and Native Americans who hid behind trees and fired easily at the bright red British uniforms.
The British suffered a major defeat, losing almost 1,000 soldiers including Braddock himself.
The French lost almost all their territory in North America except for some islands in the Caribbean.
The British gain all of Canada and all lands east of the Mississippi from the French, as well as Florida from the Spanish.
The Spanish gain all French lands west of the Mississippi as well as the port city of New Orleans.
Did we leave anyone out??
Even though they didn't like it, Native Americans were forced to trade with the British.
Why might feelings between the British and Native Americans have changed after the French and Indian War?
British settlers began moving west into the newly gained territory.
Chief Pontiac recognized the British expansion as a threat to the Native Americans' way of life, so he formed an alliance with other tribes to fight back against the British.
In the spring and summer of 1763, the Pontiac's alliance attacked British forts around the Great Lakes and British settlers in western Pennsylvania and Virginia.
In 1765, the Native American alliance is defeated by the British, and Chief Pontiac signs a peace treaty with the British.
To prevent more fighting between British settlers and Native Americans, newly crowned British King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763.
The Proclamation halted further westward expansion by British settlers across the Appalachian Mountains.
How would Pitt's change in war strategy have caused the British to begin winning more battles?
Why do you think we call it the French and Indian War and not the French and British War?
How would the British taking the capital of New France have effected the French in the war?
Do you believe the Proclamation of 1763 will solve the problem? Why or why not?
With the French and Indian War looming, the need for cooperation was urgent, especially for colonies likely to come under attack or invasion.
The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to unite the colonies together for protection.
On July 10, 1754, representatives from seven of the British North American colonies adopted the plan.
Although never carried out, the Albany Plan was the first time an effort was made to unite the colonies for one purpose.
One figure of emerging prominence among this group of intellectuals was Pennsylvanian Benjamin Franklin. He designed this flag to encourage the adoption of the Albany Plan of Union.