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The Abyssal Zone

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Katie Paris

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of The Abyssal Zone

The Abyssal Zone Katie Paris Definition The Abyssal Zone is the deep sea, 2,000 to 6,000 meters (6,560 to 19,680 feet) deep. There is no light, very low temperatures and high pressure. Examples/Location The Abyssal Zone can be found in most parts of the ocean, and it is all over Earth. The Mariana Trench off the coast of Japan and the Philippines is an example of an abyssal zone. Abiotic Factors Temperatures of 2-3°C(35-37 °F) No sunlight High pressure of around 11,000 PSI (for reference, SCUBA tanks contain about 3,000 PSI) Little nutrients Adaptations Biotic Factors Sea pigs are a type of sea cucumber that feed on organic particles in the sea floor. They have several squatty legs and spend their time drifting along the bottom of the ocean. Sea Pigs (my favorites) Viperfish Glass Squid Oarfish Angler fish have protruding luminous “fishing poles” used to lure fish closer. These fish can swallow prey up to twice their size. Shown in "Finding Nemo" Angler Fish Giant squid have the larges eyes of any animal, some measuring 25 cm(10 in.) in diameter. They eat fish, shrimp, small whales and other squid. Sperm whales are their main predator. Giant Squid Goblin Shark Giant Isopod Deep Sea Dragonfish Vampire Squid Venus’s Flower Basket Frilled Shark Bluntnose Sixgill Shark Animals in the Abyssal Zone have to be able to withstand tremendous amounts of pressure. They also have to be adapted to the darkness and cold temperatures of the deep. Some organisms, such as the angler fish, also have bioluminescence to lure their prey closer to them. Threats and Conservation The Abyssal Zone makes up around 60% of Earth's surface. It is crucial to carbon cycling. Changes in climate of the world really affects this biome. The food chain of the Abyssal Zone is dependent on the organic matter that floats down from higher areas. Climate change has affected the quantity and type of matter floating down. It affects ocean currents, nutrient levels and organisms that may eat this organic matter before it reaches the Abyssal Zone. This causes some species to go through a population explosion while other species suffer. Everything that affects the top layers of the ocean also impacts the deeper zones. If nothing is done, this ecosystem that we have just begun to explore could be dramatically altered. Fun Facts Abyss comes from a Greek word meaning "bottomless sea." This zone covers around 83% of the ocean's total area and about 60% of Earth's surface. There is almost no plant life here, but some organisms are producers who are chemosynthetic instead of using photosynthesis. Because Everyone Loves Finding Nemo Endless Ocean The following video is something I recorded while playing a Wii game called Endless Ocean: Blue World. In the game, you are a scuba diver who explores different areas of the ocean. *Note: The game is not 100% accurate. No human being could dive this deep and survive. All of the animals shown in the game are deep sea animals, but not all of them live specifically in the Abyssal Zone. Table of Contents 1. Biome Definition
2. Diagram
3. Fun Facts
4. Examples/Location
5. Abiotic Factors
6. Biotic Factors
7. Adaptations
8. Threats and Conservation
9. Finding Nemo
10. Endless Ocean
11. Test Questions
12. Bibliography
13. Presentation Plan Test Questions 1. At what depth is the Abyssal Zone?

A. 5,000-8,000 meters
B 2,000-6,000 meters
C. 7,000-20,000 meters
D. 10,000-16,000 meters 2. "Abyss" comes from a Greek word meaning:

A. Bottomless sea
B. Deep
C Davy Jones' Locker
D. Crushing 3. Which of the following animals is NOT found in the Abyssal Zone?

A. Giant Squid
B. Angler Fish
C. Manta Ray
D. Sea Pig 4. What is a major threat to the Abyssal Zone?
A. Boats
B. Climate Change
C. Commercial Scuba divers
D. Fishing 5. Which fish is shown in the "Finding Nemo" clip?
A. Barreleye
B. Glass Squid
C. Angel Fish
D. Angler Fish Bibliography http://www.untamedscience.com/biology/world-biomes/deep-sea-biome http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091102171559.htm http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/giant-squid/ http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/anglerfish/ http://fc08.deviantart.net/fs46/f/2009/194/a/a/Sea_Pig_Is_Pleased_by_G_Midgit.jpg http://seapics.com/assets/pictures/000658-450-goblin-shark.jpg http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/abyssal.html http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/005/cache/giant-squid_544_600x450.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Br1rQvAweME/TSPeqrumfsI/AAAAAAAAAOQ/GQcJWeXp3YQ/s1600/Vampire+Squid.jpg http://c85c7a.medialib.glogster.com/media/34/34c946c982a7a019a09d9c1e5ba3afea69742f3be3ff1290b68013763b74b4ec/giant-isopod-5-slideshow-604x500-jpg.jpg http://cdn1.arkive.org/media/24/24EEB38C-0717-4044-ADFC-DD477D5DB2E2/Presentation.Large/Frilled-shark-swimming.jpg Presentation Plan Go through the Prezi in order of the table of contents. Spend the most time on the biotic factors, explaining the different organisms and how they interact with the environment. Watch the Finding Nemo clip, then the Endless Ocean clip. Explain more about Endless Ocean and how it works. Have everyone answer the five test questions and go over them. Answer any questions and then conclude the presentation.
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