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Psychology Unit 1 AoS2: Lifespan Psychology

Developed for Mallacoota P-12 V.C.E. students who have purchased the book below. Reference: Grivas, J. & Carter, L.(2010). Psychology for the VCE student Units 1 and 2. 5th Ed. Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

Simon Berry

on 30 June 2016

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Transcript of Psychology Unit 1 AoS2: Lifespan Psychology

Psychology Unit 1
- What is Psychology

Developed for Mallacoota P-12 V.C.E. students who have purchased the book below.
Reference: Grivas, J. & Carter, L.(2010). Psychology for the VCE student Units 1 and 2. 5th Ed. Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Area of Study 2: Lifespan Psychology
STAGES of lifespan development

AREAS of lifespan development

Chr4: Lifespan Development
Refers to
age-related changes that occur from birth, throughout a person’s life, and during old age.
Aims to understand, describe, explain and predict the many ways in
which our thoughts, feelings and behaviour change throughout our lives
A change must be relatively lasting or permanent to be considered a developmental change

Examples of lifespan changes. vs non lifespan changes

2 teams - 2 minutes
infancy — birth to two years
childhood — two years to 10 years
adolescence — 10 years to 20 years
early adulthood — 20 years to 40 years
middle age — 40 years to 65 years
older age — 65 years and beyond.
HAVE A LOOK AT THIS.....middle age, whatever!
I'm 30 you hurtful adolescences
Pg147. L.A. 4.1 Identifying a developmental change
Q1 and 2 Discussion

Pg 148. L.A. 4.2
Exam practice. Q1, 3,
Discuss Q 2, 4, 5.
Generally, psychologists classify changes which take place in terms of four main areas: physical, social, cognitive and emotional.


Physical (biological) – involves changes in the body and its various systems, Eg. Development of the brain, bones and muscles, motor skills (movement) etc.

What are some examples?
Social – involves changes in an individual’s relationships with other people and their ability to interact with others.

What are some examples?
Cognitive – involves changes in an individual’s mental abilities, such as perception, thinking, memory skills, language, logic and reasoning.

What are some examples?
Emotional – involves changes in how an individual experiences different feelings and how these feelings are expressed and dealt with, eg. how frustration and anger are expressed.

What are some examples?
These areas are developing within each stage
Pg 150 L.A. 4.3 Personal Timeline
Identify 6 key developmental changes. 2 relating to each area.
Label the stages you are going through as well.

HOW development proceeds
Developmental psychologists generally agree
that development occurs in an orderly way and in different areas simultaneously.

Continuous Development
Discontinuous Development
At home:

There remain, however, differing views on whether development is
continuous or discontinuous.
gradual and ongoing changes throughout the lifespan without sudden shifts.

Abilities in earlier stages of development provide the basis of skills and abilities required for the next stages.

distinct and separate stages, with different abilities occurring at each stage.

These abilities have – such as ways of thinking – have identifiable start and finish points.

(some individuals develop slower/quicker on one or more areas)

(shy as a child outgoing as a teenager)

DATA Analysis – L.A. 4.5 pg 154
In books Q1-3 extension 4-5
Read Box 4.4 pg 153
Nature / Nurture
Environment / Hereditary

Interaction of
in shaping Psychological development
Nurture - Environment
Nature - Hereditary
Human psychological development is a complex process that is subject to many different influences throughout the entire lifespan. Generally, the various factors influencing the development of our psychological characteristics can be classified into one of two broad areas — heredity (nature) and environment (nurture).
Heredity refers to the characteristics that are inherited genetically from parents to children.

Genetics influence much of our physical development.

Eg. hair and eye colour, as well as our rate of development and predisposition to certain illnesses and disease.

What are some examples of solely hereditary characteristics?

Environment refers to the experiences, objects and events that we are exposed to throughout our lives.

Includes things such as family environment, whether we have siblings, their ages and gender, type of attitudes expressed at home and behaviour that is modelled.

What are some examples of solely Environmental characteristics?
Interesting Articles
Is this debate outdated?
pg 157 Read Box 4.5

pg 156 L.A. 4.8 Influence of heredity and environment

5 minutes in book then on board....Discuss
Role of maturation in development
Sensitive periods in development
Research methods for studying development
Longitudinal and cross sectional studies
Twin Studies
Adoption studies
Chapter Review
Ethics Associated with studying development
Chr Test
Sensitive periods are periods of rapid change when individuals seem to be more vulnerable to influences from their environment.
For example there seems to be a sensitive period in the development of psychological characteristics, such as in emotional development (e.g. attachment), in cognitive development (e.g. language), as well as in many aspects of physical development.
Box 4.7 pg 162 as class

Maturation is a developmental process which is automatic and internally programmed.

Refers to the
orderly sequential developmental changes
which occur in the nervous system and other bodily structures controlled by our genes

We all go through pre-determined maturationally dependent stages. Eg. Development of talking then singing, development of movement from sitting to standing to walking and running.

What are some other factors that are dependent on maturation?

The principle of readiness states
that unless the necessary bodily structures, be they muscles, bones or nerves, are sufficiently mature, then no amount of practice will produce the particular behaviour.

It is only when an individual is maturationally ready that development of these behaviours will occur.

Eg. Spending hours getting a child to walk..when they are not ready....
It is impossible to isolate an individual from all environmental influences to investigate the influence of genes on a characteristic. Even keeping a person locked in a bare room without any outside human contact, despite being unethical and illegal, still provides an environment of kinds.

Include longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies, studying similarities and differences between twins and between adopted children and their parents, and selective breeding experiments.

Mindmap on Descriptive vs Experimental Research
A longitudinal study
 is a long-term investigation that follows the same group (or groups) of people over an extended period of time, observing any changes in their thoughts, feelings and/or behaviour that occur at different ages. Eg Up Series!

The cross-sectional
study selects and compares groups of participants of different ages over a short period of time.

Pg ? L.A. 4.16
Answer the following in your books Q1 and Q5
Class discussion Q2
Two types of Twins
Monozygotic and Dizygotic
What do you think that means?
Monozygotic Twins: These participants are great for measuring effect of the environment (especially adoptions) on development…Why?

In five research studies across different countries, 24 000 pairs of identical twins were compared on two personality traits — extroversion (outgoingness) and neuroticism (psychological stability). The combined data showed that identical twins living in the same environment were more alike on these characteristics than were fraternal twins living in the same environment. This led researchers to conclude that heredity played a significant role in the development of these characteristics (Loehlin, 1992).
Pg ? L.A. 4.17
Complete in books
Dizygotic Twins: These are great for measuring the effect of genetics on the development. Why?

Psychologists also use information from research with children who have been adopted, and therefore have no genetic similarity to their adopted parents, to learn about the influence of heredity and environment on development.
Why is a Twin-Adoption study the bee's knees of studies?
Pg ? L.A. 4.18
Complete in note books. 15 minutes.
Answer as class.
In order to improve their understanding of lifespan development, psychologists need to be able to conduct research with human participants. Research studies in developmental psychology often involve infants and children.

Informed consent (from a guardian) is one of the key ethical principal in life span development.

Another is withdrawal rights....why?

of Psychological Development

Gibson's theory of perceptual development

Emotional development

Cognitive development

Moral development

Psychosocial development

Psychosocial changes in the very old and successful ageing
A theory is a set of ideas which are proposed to organise, describe and explain a set of observations and the relationships between them.

A psychological theory explains how and why certain things occur, usually (bloody Freud) on the basis of scientific evidence.
No single theory of development (or other topics) can explain all areas. So they are specific to a certain area
What does
perceptual development

Gibson did not describe perceptual development in terms of age-related changes, abilities or stages, as do many theories in other areas of development.

Instead, Gibson emphasised key processes involved in perceptual development.

These included the role of the infant as an active explorer in their world and affordance and differentiation.
The two main processes invovled in perceptual development are:
- Affordance (perceived qualities) of objects or events that are experienced. How something can be used. 2 way relationship with enviornment and organism.

Eg. Door is used for getting inside (human door, doggie door)

- Differentiated (selective) the way in which perceptual exploration becomes more and more specific with age (Gibson, 1983; 1991).

Eg. Children an animals. All animals Dog, then get specific with age.
Visual Cliff

Gibson designed an experiment to test the development of depth perception in
infants 6-12 months old.

The mother calls to the baby from the deep side. The baby is observed to see if it will crawl to the mother.

If they have depth development they will not cross the cliff and get visibly upset.
Annotated Folio - Theories of Psychological Development
John Bowlby (1969) first described attachment as
lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.

Psychologists now define attachment as the tendency of infants to form an emotional bond to another person, usually their main caregiver.

What are the advantages of attachment?

Formed in the first year of life.

Important for emotional development for the rest of their life.
According to Bowlby, there are four key characteristics that all need to be present if a strong attachment is to form between an infant and caregiver.

These characteristics are:
proximity maintenance
 — the infant's desire to be near the person(s) to whom it is attached
safe haven
 — the ability to return to the attachment figure for comfort and safety when scared or feeling unsafe or threatened
secure base
 — the ability to perceive the attachment figure as a base of security from which the infant can explore the surrounding environment
separation distress
 — anxiety experienced when the attachment figure leaves or is absent.

PG 183 L.A. 5.1 -USE text book
Complete in books - 15 minutes
Q1, 2a 3a 4a
Discussion 3b, 4c
Attachment Theory
Harlows experiments on attachment in monkeys
The main idea of attachment theory is that
human infants need a secure relationship with an adult caregiver in order for healthy emotional (and social) development to occur.

As development occurs attachment targets will be met.

Eg. Infants under six months of age do not fully recognise their caregivers on an individual basis. Between about six and eight months of age there is usually a change from the earlier pattern of accepting comfort from just about anyone.
Bowlby considered the infant–caregiver bond to be important in two ways.
First, the bond forms the foundation for healthy emotional development later in life.
Second, the bond has an ‘evolutionary’ function, which, according to Bowlby, improves the infant's chances of survival.
Types of attachment
Bowlby emphasised that
attachment is a two-way relationship
 and both the infant and main caregiver play important roles in its formation.

He also suggested that the
first year of life was a sensitive or critical period for attachment formation.

quality of care rather than its quantity determines the development of attachment (Ainsworth, 1983).

Ainsworth and her colleagues (1978) proposed that there are
two main categories of attachment — secure and insecure attachment (two types).

She generally described them in

terms of three types — secure attachment, resistant attachment and avoidant attachment.
Secure Attachment
An infant who has formed a secure attachment shows a balance between dependence and exploration.
‘home’, or safe base from which to venture out and explore an unfamiliar environment
shows some distress and decreases exploration when the caregiver departs.
When the caregiver returns, the infant is enthusiastic and seeks physical contact with them
65 % of one year olds are in this category

Formed from consistent and responsive parenting
Avoidant Attachment
The infant does not seek closeness or contact with the caregiver and treats them much like a stranger.
The infant rarely cries when the caregiver leaves the room and ignores the caregiver upon their return.
20% of one-year-olds are in this category.

Research findings suggest that this attachment style may be the result of neglectful or abusive caregivers.
Resistant Attachment
The infant appears anxious even when their caregiver is near.
They become very upset when separated from the caregiver.
When the caregiver returns, the infant approaches them, cries to be picked up, then squirms or fights to get free, as though it is not sure about what it really wants.
About 12% of one-year-olds are in this category.

This attachment style is thought to result from caregivers who are not very responsive to their infant's needs.
Attachment styles and their patterns of behavior tend not to change unless there is significant changes in the life circumstances of either the caregiver or infant.

Psychologists believe that early attachment experiences are an important influence in an individual's later emotional wellbeing, both in the short term and into adulthood.

Infants who have a secure attachment tend to have good self-esteem, lasting r/ships, confortable sharing feelings ect.
How attachment forms
Gibson's theory of perceptual development and the visual cliff
Attachment theory observation on Harper Berry
Characteristics of the caregiver

Ainsworth (1983) referred to this
factor (ability to pick up on non verbal cues) as the sensitive responsiveness of the caregiver and believes that it is crucial in the type of attachment formed between an infant and caregiver.

In one study, Ainsworth (1983) compared how mothers with securely attached infants and mothers with insecurely attached infants responded to signals of discomfort from their infants. She found that mothers with securely attached infants were more sensitive to their infants and responded more appropriately throughout the first year of their infant's life.

Characteristics of the infant

The type of attachment formed also depends to a large extent on an infant's personal characteristics.

These can influence a caregiver's responsiveness and the appropriateness of the response made.

Peterson (1989) found that “beginning life with a favourable disposition undoubtedly boosts the baby's odds of achieving a secure attachment in part because easy, alert infants are so ready and willing to interact, and reward the mother's caregiving efforts so effectively”

Pg 194 Read box 5.6

According to Gibson, this is perceptual development
— a process that involves continuous modification and refinement of perceptual abilities through experience with incoming sensory information.

A great deal of this experience is ‘self-initiated’ by the infant as it actively explores its environment.

As the infant's perceptual systems develop, and it explores its environment more, it learns more and more about people, events and objects in its world (Gibson, 1988).
L..A. 5.12 Complete using Fg 5.23
Types of development
Perceptual development- Gibson

Emotional development- Bowlby, Ainsworth and Harlow (attachment)

Cognitive development- Piaget

Psychosocial development- Erikson

Moral development- Kohlberg

Types of development
Perceptual development- Gibson

Emotional development- Bowlby, Ainsworth and Harlow (attachment)

Cognitive development- Piaget

Psychosocial development- Erikson

Moral development- Kohlberg

Types of development
Perceptual development- Gibson

Emotional development- Bowlby, Ainsworth and Harlow (attachment)

Cognitive development- Piaget

Psychosocial development- Erikson

Moral development- Kohlberg

Types of development
Perceptual development- Gibson

Emotional development- Bowlby, Ainsworth and Harlow (attachment)

Cognitive development- Piaget

Psychosocial development- Erikson

Moral development- Kohlberg

Types of development
Perceptual development- Gibson

Emotional development- Bowlby, Ainsworth and Harlow (attachment)

Cognitive development- Piaget

Psychosocial development- Erikson

Moral development- Kohlberg

What does
emotional development

What does
cognitive development

Examples of Cognition
Decision making
Logic and formal reasoning
Problem solving
Mental representation
Mental imagery
Mental models
Grammar and linguistics
Language acquisition

Pattern recognition
Object recognition
Time sensation
Ageing and memory
Constructive memory
Emotion and memory
Eyewitness memory
False memories
Working memory
Long-term memory
Short-term memory

Jean Piaget
Piaget proposed that
cognitive development, or development of mental abilities, occurs as we adapt to the changing world around us.

He described
as the continuous process of using the environment to learn and of learning to adjust to changes that occur in the environment.

When does adaption occur?

2 parts - Assimilation and Accommodation
Assimilation is the process of taking in new information and fitting it into and making it part of an existing mental idea about objects or the world.

Eg Child sees a truck and calls it a car

What are some other examples?
Accomodation refers to changing an existing schema in order to fit in new information.

The new information does not fit into an existing schema, so we have to change the existing schema.

E.g. Child makes new categoty (or schema) of truck

What are some other examples?
Pg 202 L.A. 5.15 - Class discussion
Piaget's four-stage theory of cognitive development
Sensorimotor stage: Birth-2 yrs
Pre-operational stage: 2-7 yrs
Concrete operational stage: 7-12 yrs
Formal operational stage: 12+ yrs

Sensorimotor stage: Birth-2 yrs
Pre-operational stage: 2-7 yrs
Concrete operational stage: 7-12 yrs
Formal operational stage: 12+ yrs
Criticisms of Piaget's theory
What do we thinks some criticisms could be?
Did Haper Berry have goal directed behaviour...if so what was it?

Pg 204 L.A. 5.17
Read pg 205 Box 5.8
Pg 208 L.A. 5.19
Class discussion

Pg 208 and 209 - Pictures
Pg 210 - L.A. 5.21 Matching Exercise
In text books.
Video Summary
Pg 212 L.A. 5.22 Class discussion
Complete the summary table (in your SAC notes folder) as we are going along
pg 212 Read Box 5.11 - apply to our SAC
Applying Piaget's theory of cognitive development
What do we think Moral development is?

Moral development involves the gradual development of an individual's concept of right and wrong. It includes the development of a ‘conscience’, religious values, social attitudes and certain behaviour.
pg 216 Read Box 5.13
Write your Answer
Kohlberg was not interested in which outcome the person chose, he was more interested in the moral reasoning people undertook:
WHY they answered the way the did and the way they justified their answers.
He did this by presenting the participants with a moral dilemma, then asking them a number of questions about their answer.

Kohlberg's Moral development
1. Should Heinz steal the drug? 1a. Why or why not?
2. Is it actually right or wrong for him to steal the drug?
2a. Why is it right or wrong?
3. Does Heinz have a duty or obligation to steal the drug?
3a. Why or why not?
4. If Heinz doesn't love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Does it make a difference in what Heinz should do whether or not he loves his wife?
4a. Why or why not?
5. Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for the stranger?
5a. Why or why not?
6. Suppose it's a pet animal he loves. should Heinz steal to save the pet animal?
6a. Why or why not?
7. Is it important for people to do everything they can to save another's life?
7a. Why or why not?
8. It is against the law for Heinz to steal. Does that make it morally wrong?
8a. Why or why not?
9. In general, should people try to do everything they can to obey the law?
9a. Why or why not?
9b. How does this apply to what Heinz should do?
10. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Heinz to do?
10a. Why?

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development
Thought experiment - Applying Piaget's theory of cognitive development (as a group)
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory
Chr6: Mental illness across the life span
Incidents of mental illness in Australia
This is a sensitive topic....
Help if needed.
Erikson believed that
social development occurs through a combination of the effects of psychological processes which take place within individuals ( psycho)

and the experiences of individuals during their lifetimes, particularly their interaction with other people ( social).

This is why he called his theory psychosocial development.

Erikson recognised the part that individuals play in their own development, as well as other important social influences such as parents, siblings, friends, peers and school.

Table of how you think you will develop
Psychosocial crisis: a social problem an individual faces in adjusting to society: a turning point in life.

Each crisis involves a struggle between our personal needs and the demands of society.

According to Erikson, our personalities are shaped by how we resolve these crises.

Each crisis is resolved in favour of a positive or negative outcome, depending on the individual’s ability to deal with it.

Negative outcomes are not necessarily permanent: setbacks can be overcome later on with proper attention and care

In order to successfully resolve a crisis, individuals must have a balance of positive and negative outcomes. Positive outcomes are important, but the negative outcome must also exist to some degree.

Psychosocial Crisis
According to Erickson we
Go through 8 stages, ages can vary, stages can overlap
Pg 234 LA 5.36

Successful ageing
Occurs when an older person maximises and gains positive outcomes while minimising and avoiding negative outcomes.

The person uses strategies to continue to develop their skills and their full potential
Cognitive Changes
But Why....!!!!!!
pg 236 Read Box 5.16
Psychosocial Changes
In sum, when considering the whole person, very old age is associated with many losses. These can occur in all areas of the person's life — physically, cognitively and psychosocially (Baltes & Smith, 1999).

How they deal with these losses (Crisis) will result in changes to thier wellbeing.
Bates Selection., Optimisation and Compensation theory
According to Baltes, successful ageing occurs when a very old person maximises and attains positive (desired) outcomes while minimising and avoiding negative (undesired) outcomes.
When a person uses selection, they reduce the number of goals they try to achieve, then prioritise the goals.

For example, after moving into a retirement village, an individual's goal might be to develop friendships within the village. If they are invited to attend the Friday night community dinner at the village as well as a family dinner on the same evening, they may select the village dinner over the family dinner. This reflects their current priority of building friendships ‘close to home’.
Optimisation involves making the most of the abilities, resources and opportunities available to achieve the optimal or best outcome.

For example, if a very old person wanted to prepare a dinner for a family member's birthday, they might choose simple recipes, or something they have cooked before. They may also practise what they plan to cook prior to the special day and prepare as much of the meal as they can in advance. Using strategies such as these will optimise the likelihood of a successful dinner, which is the desirable outcome.
Because very old people experience losses in many aspects of their lives, one of their challenges is to maintain a productive life. In order to maintain a productive (and enjoyable) life, they must develop new strategies to compensate, or ‘substitute’, for each of these losses.

For example, someone whose partner dies may have to develop strategies to cope with being on their own. They may arrange to have company each day and find ways to occupy their time so they don't feel so lonely. Similarly, a person who can no longer read due to deteriorated eyesight may compensate for their loss of vision by listening to ‘talking books’ which have been recorded to CD.
Pg 240. L.A. 5.42
Q 1, 2, 3 in books - 10 minutes
Q 4 and 5 group discussion
Chapter Review
Chapter test
Mental illness is often defined as a
psychological dysfunction experienced by an individual which usually
involves distress, impairment in the ability to cope with everyday life, and thoughts, feelings and/or behaviour
that are not typical of the person or appropriate within their society and/or culture.
pg 250 L.A. 6.2
Complete as individual then class discussion
Can be Psychotic (loss of reality)
Non Psychotic (remain in touch with reality)
Biopsychosocial Framework
Break the word down. What does it mean???
The biopsychosocial framework is an approach to describing and explaining how biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person’s physical and mental health.

Biological factors involve physiologically based or determined influences, often not under our control, such as the genes we inherit and our neurochemistry.

Psychological factors involve all those influences associated with mental processes such as how we think; learn; make decisions; solve problems; perceive our internal and external environments.

Social factors are described broadly to include such factors as our skills in interacting with others, the range and quality of our inter-personal relationships, the amount and type of support available from others when needed, as well as socio-cultural factors
It is seen as a holistic view of health (takes in to account the whole person.

It also applies not just to mental health but also illness.

Treatment should take place across all domains.

Views all domains equally, the all interact and are interdependent.

Pg 253 L.A 6.4 Complete in boos then discuss.
Normality, mental health and mental illness
What is normal and what is abnormal?
Ab simply means away from
Behaviour that is accepted in a particular society or culture, but not in others

Behaviour that is accepted, however it depends on the period of time

Behaviour that is accepted in a particular situation

Abnormal behaviour has a biological cause and can be diagnosed and treated

Normal behaviour is if the individual can function effectively in society
Normal Distribution = behaviour in a large group of individuals that is distributed in a particular way

Statistical Average = the majority that demonstrate this behaviour = normal

Statistical Extremity = the minority that demonstrate this behaviour = abnormal
Statistical Normality/Abnormalit
Throughout the history of psychology,
many different approaches to defining or describing normality and abnormality in relation to mental processes and behaviour have been proposed.

Six approaches that have been infl uential are the socio-cultural, functional, historical, situational, medical and statistical approaches.

- each view it slightly different/or take a different persepctive
Although normality is often defined as a pattern of thoughts, feelings or behaviour that conforms to a usual, typical or expected standard, it is recognised that what is a ‘usual, typical or expected standard’ depends upon many different factors.

Normality and Abnormality
Systems of classification of mental disorders
Mental health professionals classify mental health problems and disorders in different categories according to characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviour.

- Classification
is the organisation of items into groups on the basis of their common properties.

A category, or class
, is a group of items that shares a particular set of properties.

A class may be further divided into a number of
subcategories, or subclasses.

More categories...=...more subcategories.
Which is best?

Often both are used

Categorical approach used to classify the symptoms

Dimensional approach used to determine the severity of these symptoms

Categorical Approach
Dimensional Approach

Strengths/Limitations of Categorical Model
S/L Dimensional Approach
There has been 4 revisions. Each expands the list of disorders...using current scientific research
- 365 mental disorders described
- 16 major categorizes
Box 11.5 pg 562 Read
For every disorder there is a
"Diagnostic Criteria"

It is a list of symptoms that are characteristic to the disorder.

You need to have these/amount of these to be diagnosed.

Purpose is reliability.
Pg 563 read For each disorder..
When diagnosing it is important to take into account the 5 axis.

Its why its called a multi-axis system

Each axis is different information about the person.

Is this a build in factor of BPS????
Read pg 564 Axis 1 describes.....
Read pg 566 Box 11.6
In Note books/Class if time
L.A. 11.12

Pg 569 Read Like the DMS...
At home in Notebooks
Pg 570 L.A. 11.14
Q1b,c, and 3

In class 2.
- Completed by an inventory (or test). Closed ended questions over a number of dimensions

- Scores show
how much/little a person has of each dimension and also indicated the degree of psychological dysfunction.

- Do this by comparing to the avg. Statistical approach to normality/abnormality.
Is the diff significant? Statistical normality is the key here!

- Does NOT focus on whether or not someone has or has not got a mental illness...
rather grades a person in magnitude/degree/severity on particular dimensions.

- Profile can be created and continual testing can show improvements/declines.
- Take into account a wider range of factors than categorical approaches
- More detailed information on each symptom – quantifying
- Reduced stigma as labeling not used instead a profile is created
- take into account the whole person

- There is no standard inventory to compare scores to, thus diagnosis is difficult
- Time consuming

There are currently two main approaches to
classifying mental conditions and disorders:

1. categorical approaches
2. dimensional approaches

Both approaches have strengths and limitations.
ICD - 10
Can you think of any reasons why it could be helpful to classify mental disorders into categories?

Can you think of any reasons why it might be unhelpful to classify mental disorders into categories?

- Based on current scientific research
- Allow diagnosis / easy to use
- Help communication b/w health care professionals

- Historically low inter-reliability
- Much better now with DSM-IV-R 70% agreement between mental health professionals
- Lots of overlap between symptoms can make diagnosis difficult
Loss of clinical information (uniqueness of person lost)
- Stigma and labelling – read pg 573 For example...
Chapter Review
Chapter test
?? - deviated from the text book a fair bit.
Full transcript