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First Nations of the Northwest Coast

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Justin Cruz

on 27 February 2016

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Transcript of First Nations of the Northwest Coast


Amrit Randhawa
Donia Gharieb
Ishkaran Sekhon
Gurinder Mand
Justin Cruz
Jaspreet Nijjar
-lived in west coast of N. America for at least 10,000 years
The Western Cordillera
with First Nations groups
Western Cordillera
-new mountains
-many mountain ranges
-near the ocean
-access to fish and shellfish
-maritime climate
-moist and mild
-rains frequently due to rainshadow
-vegetation is abundant
-really huge evergreens
-lots of berries
-maritime climate and location
-no need to grow food
-geographic region along the west coast of North America
-eg. develop culture, move around, live in comfortable housing
- Mostly used canoes
- Can be up to 60 feet long
- Made of cedar trees
Artistic Expression
-Totems Poles
-Made out of Western Red Cedar Trees
-Symbols/Meanings varied
-wore less clothing during warmer months
-women made the clothing
-used cedar wood and bark
-clothing important for blocking rain due to maritime climate
-ex. bark capes and spruce hats
Aboriginals in their canoe
Raven Steals the Light
-Haida legend
-How there is a sun
-A raven living in darkness wanting to steal light from an old man
-the maritime climate allowed cedar trees to grow big and tall to be used for clothing
-Trees grow big and tall due to climate
-Allows many canoes to be made
Pacific Northwest First Nations. Digital image. The Last Viking. N.p., 4 June 2003. Web. <http://www.spirasolaris.ca/sbb4g1dv.html>.
Nuu-chah-nulth Man Fishing With a Net. Digital image. Northwest Coastal People. Canada's First People's, 2007. Web. <http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc3.html>.
Teague, Kevin. Mount Waddington. Digital image. Coast Mountains. Wikipedia, 14 Aug. 2007. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coast_Mountains>.
Vancouver Climograph. Digital image. Marine West Coast Climate. Earth Online Media, n.d. Web. <http://www.earthonlinemedia.com/ebooks/tpe_3e/climate_systems/marine_west_coast.html>.

Haida Spruce Hat. Digital image. Northwest Coastal People. Canada's First Peoples, n.d. Web. <http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&biw=1920&bih=899&tbm=isch&tbnid=-v3qa17yC01EKM:&imgrefurl=http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc5.html&docid=l-qaWCzSeCxYTM&imgurl=http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/images/firstnations/teachers_guide/northwest_coast/hat_spruceroot_haida.jpg&w=360&h=270&ei=LO4wUa-vNoTziQK8t4HYDQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=2&vpy=123&dur=763&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=101&ty=136&sig=103728629589811696171&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=177&start=0&ndsp=53&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:77>.

A Giant Cedar Tree. Digital image. Glacier National Park. Parks Canada, 4 May 2012. Web. <http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/bc/glacier/natcul/natcul1/c.aspx>.
"Totem Pole." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Feb. 2013. Web. 01 Mar. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totem_pole>.

Http://www.adelecampbell.com/dynamic/images/detail/Cameron_Bird_Rain_Squalls_Haida_Canoe_5176_355.jpg. N.p., n.d. Web.
Http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-KovtqDveOeU/UFQPHad4tmI/AAAAAAAAGis/6oAFxD8BaSc/s1600/Ancient+Trees+012.JPG. N.p., n.d. Web.

Http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4037/4325797665_e1a0e1107b.jpg. N.p., n.d. Web.
Haida Beaver Cape. Digital image. Northwest Coastal People. Canada's First Peoples, n.d. Web. <http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&biw=1920&bih=899&tbm=isch&tbnid=KL26Oa1zuw2F-M:&imgrefurl=http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc5.html&docid=l-qaWCzSeCxYTM&imgurl=http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/images/firstnations/teachers_guide/northwest_coast/cape_beaver_haida.jpg&w=360&h=401&ei=bfEwUcOKEuLIigKR6ICgCQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&sig=103728629589811696171&page=1&tbnh=142&tbnw=129&start=0&ndsp=63&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:77&tx=60&ty=69>.

Raven Steals the Sun. Digital image. Littera Scripta. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://litterascripta.wordpress.com/2009/10/15/raven-steals-the-sun/>.
Cranny, Michael William. "Regional Geography of North America." Crossroads: A Meeting of Nations. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Ginn Canada, 1998. N. pag. Print.

Cranny, Michael William. "The Native Peoples of Canada." Crossroads: A Meeting of Nations. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Ginn Canada, 1998. N. pag. Print.
Cedar Trees
Building Houses
Support Poles
Big Houses
-Abundant in Western Cordillera
-Maritime Climate provides nutrition to trees
-Can become very large
-Raised Strong Frames
-Faced with cedar planks after
-Used to stop home from caving in
-Carved in with images important to clan
-Made near food source
-Very sturdy
-Clan lived in village
-Decorated nicely
-Big houses can hold 7 families
Interior Design
-Each family would have their own fire pit
-One space per family
-Adds could be made to house
Spring and early summer
Late Summer and Early Fall
Seasonal Round
The movement of when the food was collected
They had to move around a lot
Late Fall
Social Organization
Wealth and Status
Concerned with rank and privilege
Chiefs, Nobles and Slaves
Wealth depended on resource management
Many were commoners
Traditional ceremony
Whenever a major event occurs
For example a birth, death of a chief, new house and new totem pole
treated to a feast and dances
giveaway of a lot of canoes, blankets, food, boxes and slaves
a way to show a noble's status
lived in large Villages
little hunting and gathering occurred
most time spent making tools
villages were part of the Coast Salish Nation
Food were begin to ran out
large villages began to break up
collected food like shellfish, clams, birds, plants and berries
made camps near northern shores
Salmons run began
Fish caught would be dried
Carried back to winter camps
Salmon would last them most of winter
Indian potatoes
Begin to go back to winter camps
-Transformations Masks
-Made for rituals/potlatches to illustrate myths
-Often made out of Argillite
"Canada's First Nations: Native Civilisations." Canada's First Nations: Native Civilisations. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/cordillera.html>.

"The Northwest Coastal People - Environment / Housing." The Northwest Coastal People - Environment / Housing. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc2.html>.

Longhouse. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://home.earthlink.net/~susankae/longhse.jpg>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. <http://www.petessite.com/akimages/402%20tt%20longhouse.JPG>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. <http://www.travelfootprints.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/giant-cedars-boardwalk-trail-revelstoke-3.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. <http://www.beaconhillparkhistory.org/graphics/430_village_27K350.jpg>.
Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. <http://blog.showmenaturephotography.com/wp-content/uploads/KMK3-6773-InsideLonghouse3.jpg>.

Spiritual Beliefs
-abundance of food and vegetation
Mostly similar, almost all tribes believed animals were sacred
Almost all tribes believed in afterlife
Most had festivals, rituals and ceremonies
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