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Syllogisms

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Ryan Mammarella

on 17 October 2017

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Transcript of Syllogisms

Syllogisms
Disjunctive Syllogism
Categorical Syllogisms
A brief overview of foundational Argumentation
Enthymeme
Includes words like:
All/Some/None in the
Warrant.
Categorical Syllogism
All Men are Mortal
Socrates is a Man
Socrates is Mortal
Categorical Syllogisms are the basis of
deductive reasoning.
Categorical Syllogisms usually APPEAR logical
Example:
All Dogs have Four Legs
All animals have Four Legs
All dogs are animals
All Dogs have four legs
All Chairs have four legs
All Dogs are chairs
Enthymeme = A two statement syllogism (the thirds statement is "assumed" to be true.
Enthymeme example:
"The gun has the defendant's finger
prints on the trigger. He is Clearly Guilty!"
If the gun has the defendant's fingerprints on it, then the defendant is guilty (the gun is connected to the crime)
The gun has the defendant's fingerprints
The defendant is guilty
Enthymeme arguments are very effective because they are
difficult to disprove. Finding the missing premise is key to breaking apart the argument.

Example:
"He is an American citizen and therefore entitled to due process.
All American citizens are entitled to due process (Warrant)
He is an American Citizen (Evidence)
Therefore, he is entitled to due process (Claim)

Warrant
Evidence
Claim
Conditional
Conditional Syllogism =
If A Then B
Conditional Syllogisms = Hypothetical Syllogisms
If I study hard I will get a good grade
I studied hard
Therefore I should get a good grade
Conditional/Hypothetical Syllogisms
are often the root of major logical fallacies
If I study hard I will get good grades
I did not study hard
Therefore I will not get a good grade
Disjunctive Syllogism
Either A or B
Either John or Jack stole the money
John could not have stolen the money
Therefore Jack stole the money
Often used by Politicians and/or in Advertisements
George Bush (after 9/11)
"You are either with the terrorist or with us".
(implied) {If} you are not with us -
(implied) therefore you are a terrorist.
How about the enthymeme in this car commericial?
Enthymeme = "The substance of Rhetorical
persuasion". - Aristotle
All men are mortal (Warrant)
All Greeks are men (Evidence)
All Greeks are mortal (Claim)
Homework is never fun (Warrant)
Reading is sometimes fun (Evidence)
Reading is not homework (Claim)
All informative things are useful (Warrant)
Some websites are not useful (Evidence)
Some websites are not informative (Claim)
You will get into a good college because you have good grades
If you have good grades then you will get into a good college (Warrant - unstated)
You have good grades (Evidence)
Therefore, you will get into a good college. (Claim)

"There is no law against composing music when one has no ideas whatsoever. The music of Wagner, therefore, is perfectly legal."
- Mark Twain.
There is no law against composing music when one has no ideas whatsoever (M)
Wagner has no ideas whatsoever (m - unstated)
Therefore: The music of Wagner is perfectly legal
Good people help out at food kitchens after school. I know you are a good person.
Good people help out at food kitchens after school
I know you are a good person
Therefore I know that you will help out at the food kitchen after school (claim - unstated)
The following quote is taken from Allan E. Goodman's 1993 book A Brief History of the Future: The United States in a Changing World Order:

"There is, of course, no legitimate branch of science that enables us to predict the future accurately. Yet the degree of change in the world is so overwhelming and so promising that the future, I believe, is far brighter than anyone has contemplated since the end of the Second World War."

Write an essay that argues your position on the extent to which Goodman's predictions about the future are valid. Support your argument with appropriate with examples from your observations, readings, and experiences.
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