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Syllogisms

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Ryan Mammarella

on 30 October 2015

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Transcript of Syllogisms

Syllogisms
Disjunctive Syllogism
Categorical Syllogisms
A brief overview of foundational Argumentation
Enthymeme
Includes words like:
All/Some/None in the
Major Premise.
Categorical Syllogism
All Men are Mortal
Socrates is a Man
Socrates is Mortal
Categorical Syllogisms are the basis of
deductive reasoning.
Categorical Syllogisms usually APPEAR logical
Example:
All Dogs have Four Legs
All animals have Four Legs
All dogs are animals
All Dogs have four legs
All Chairs have four legs
All Dogs are chairs
Enthymeme = A two statement syllogism (the thirds statement is "assumed" to be true.
Enthymeme example:
"The gun has the defendant's finger
prints on the trigger. He is Clearly Guilty!"
The gun has the defendant's fingerprints
The gun is connected to the crime
The defendant is guilty.
Enthymeme arguments are very effective because they are
difficult to disprove. Finding the missing premise is key to breaking apart the argument.
Example:
"He is an American citizen and therefore entitled to due process.
All American citizens are entitled to due process (M)
He is an American Citizen (m - unstated)
Therefore he is entitled to due process
Major Premise
Minor Premise
Conclusion
Conditional
Conditional Syllogism =
If A Then B
Conditional Syllogism Example:
Advertisements
Geico, Hair/Beauty Products
Conditional Syllogisms = Hypothetical Syllogisms
If I study hard I will get a good grade
I studied hard
Therefore I should get a good grade
Conditional/Hypothetical Syllogisms
are often the root of major logical fallacies
If I study hard I will get good grades
I did not study hard
Therefore I will not get a good grade
Disjunctive Syllogism
Either A or B
Either John or Jack stole the money
John could not have stolen the money
Therefore Jack stole the money
Often used by Politicians and/or in Advertisements
George Bush (after 9/11)
"You are either with the terrorist or with us".
(implied) {If} you are not with us -
(implied) therefore you are a terrorist.
Can you identify the enthymeme in the following advertisement for red bull?
How about the enthymeme in this car commericial?
Enthymeme = "The substance of Rhetorical
persuasion". - Aristotle
All men are mortal (Major Premise)
All Greeks are men (minor premise)
All Greeks are mortal (Conclusion)
Homework is never fun (Major Premise)
Reading is sometimes fun (minor premise)
Reading is not homework (Conclusion)
All informative things are useful (Major Premise)
Some websites are not useful (minor premise)
Some websites are not informative (Conclusion)
Where there is smoke there is fire.
Smoke is only created by fire. (Major premise - unstated)
There is smoke present. (minor premise)
Therefore a fire must be present. (conclusion)
The word 'enthymeme' is derived from the Latin word 'enth?mema' and from the Greek 'enthumema'. An argumentative statement is said to contain a conclusion and one supposition where the supposition is to be implied. Enthymeme examples are more common in literature than social talks. Usage of the enthymemes are an instrument for slightly minimizing and yet pointing out some assertion in the way of omitting conclusion. It makes the reader work out an own conclusion and nudges him further to read on to get a clear picture of his premise.
- fos.iloveindia.com
"There is no law against composing music when one has no ideas whatsoever. The music of Wagner, therefore, is perfectly legal."
- Mark Twain.
There is no law against composing music when one has no ideas whatsoever (M)
Wagner has no ideas whatsoever (m - unstated)
Therefore: The music of Wagner is perfectly legal
Good people help out at food kitchens after school. I know you are a good person.
Good people help out at food kitchens after school (M).
I know you are a good person (m)
Therefore I know that you will help out at the food kitchen after school (conclusion -unstated)
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