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Motivation in Learning and Teaching

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Rachel Mentzer

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Motivation in Learning and Teaching

Motivation in Learning and Teaching
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?

What energizes and directs our behavior?


Linked with negative outcomes in schools
Determining whether the cause of the behavior is internal or external is called the
locus of causality

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are two independent possibilities.
Five General Approaches to Motivation
1. BEHAVIORAL: is an attempt to motivate students by extrinsic means of incentives, rewards, and punishments

2. HUMANISTIC: to motivate by encouraging people's inner resources, their sense of competence, self esteem, autonomy, and self-actualization

3. COGNITIVE: behavior is initiated and regulated by plans, goals, schemas, expectations, and attributions.

4. SOCIAL COGNITIVE: the individuals expectation of reaching a goal and the value of that goal to him or her

5. SOCIOCULTURAL: perspectives that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
When the deficiency needs are satisfied, the motivation for fulfilling them decreases

When the basic needs are met, a person motivation does not cease; instead, it increases to seek further fulfillment
Each of the lower needs must be met before the next higher need can be addressed
Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouse, directs and maintains behavior
Students motivation has direct and powerful impact on their social interaction and academic achievement in the classroom
Linked with positive outcomes in school
2. Extrinsic Motivation: created by external factors such as rewards and punishments
1. Intrinsic Motivation: motivation that is associated with activities that are their own reward
Self-Determination Theory
It is the need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness

Need for autonomy
is central to self-determination because it is the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures to determine our actions.
How can teachers establish a sense of self-determination in the classroom?
GOALS
The type of goals we set influence the amount of motivation we have to reach them
Specific, elaborated
goals provide clear standards for judging performance
Moderate difficulty
goals provides a challenge
Fairly soon goals
are not likely to be pushed aside
GOAL ORIENTATIONS
They provide us with the reasons we pursue goals and the standards we use to evaluate progress towards the goal
Performance Goals: personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others
Mastery Goals: personal intention to improve abilities and learn, no matter how performance suffers
Social Goals: a wide variety of needs and motives to be connected to others or part of a group
How to make goal setting effective
1. Feedback
2. Goal Framing
3. Goal Acceptance
Students are more likely to work toward goals that are clear, specific, reasonable, moderately challenging, and attainable within a relativity short period of time
Interests, Curiosity, Emotions, and Anxiety
Tapping Interests:

Personal Interests:
Are our individual interests. They are longer-lasting interests. These interests would be things such as your attraction to certain sports, music, or movies.
Situational Interests
: These are shorter-lasting interests in a text or activity. They normally do not last longer than the time you spend with the material.
*Students' interest in and excitement about what they are learning are two of the most important factors in education*
Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity
Interest and curiosity are related.

Curiosity:
tendency to be interested in a wide range of areas

Curiosity is key if we want to have our situational interests develop into personal interests. You will also need a desire for exploration.

Two Types of Interests:
What is Curiosity?
Curiosity arises when we have a "gap" in our knowledge and then we feel a sense of deprivation. From this feeling we are hit by a need to learn.
Take a few minutes to discuss the following:
Do you think teachers should always try to make learning fun?
Emotions
Emotions
are a "constant interplay between cognitive assessments, conscious feelings, and bodily responses, with each about to influence each other"
Humans are most likely to remember events that triggered emotional responses
In education we consider emotions that deal with
achievement to be the most important
Achievement Emotions
Mastery Goal:
Students are focused on an activity, they feel in control, and want to learn. These students were less likely to feel angry or bored while learning.

Boredom
in the classroom is associated with lack of intrinsic motivation, weak effort, shallow processing and poor self-regulated learning
Performance-Approach Goal:
Students want to look good. They focus on the outcome, it's controllable and there is a positive outcome value. These goals are closely related to
pride.
Performance-Avoidance Goal:
These goals are focused on the fear of failing or the possibility of looking stupid.They focus on the outcome, they are not controllable and there is a negative outcome value. It predicts feelings of
anxiety, hopelessness, and shame.
How to combat boredom?
Students are most likely to feel bored if they believe the have little control over the learning activities and if they don't value the activities.

A teacher must match the challenge to the students skill levels.
Arousal and Anxiety
Arousal:
Physical and psychological reactions causing a person to be alert, attentive, and wide awake.
Anxiety:
A general uneasiness, a feeling of tension
Lower levels of arousal are ideal for taking a test like the SAT, while higher levels of arousal are ideal for doing tasks like folding laundry.
Anxiety in the Classroom
The effects of anxiety on school achievement are very high.
Anxiety can be both a cause and an effect of school failure.
Students do poorly because they are anxious, and the fact that they do poorly increases their anxiety.

Trait:
Anxious in many situations

State:
Happens in anxiety-provoking situations
Trait Anxiety vs. State Anxiety:
Cognitive Anxiety:
Worrying, negative thoughts

Physiological Anxiety:
Sweaty palms, upset stomach, fear, and a rapid heartbeat.
Coping with Anxiety
Use competition carefully
Avoid situations in which highly anxious students will have to perform in front of large groups
Make sure all instructions are clear.
Avoid unnecessary time pressures
Remove some of the pressure from major tests and exams
Develop alternatives to written tests
Teach students self-regulation strategies
Motivation to Learn in School
Teachers want to guide student’s motivation to learn, which is encouraged when the following elements come together:

In summary, motivation to learn is a trait and a state. It is taking academic work seriously and applying learning strategies in the process.

Source of Motivation: Optimum Characteristics of Motivation to Learn
Type of Goal Set: INTRINSIC
Type of Involvement: LEARNING GOAL- Satisfaction in meeting challenges and improving
TASK-INVOLVED- concerned with mastering a task
Achievement Motivation: Motivation to ACHIEVE
Likely Attributions: CONTROLLABLE effort and ability
Beliefs about Ability: INCREMENTAL VIEW- Belief that ability can be improved through hard work and added knowledge and skills

ON TARGET
What are some areas where we, as teachers, can make decisions that influence our students’ motivation to learn?

T: task that students are asked to do
A: autonomy or authority students are allowed in working
R: recognition for accomplishments
G: grouping practices
E: evaluation procedures
T: time in the classroom

Six of the most common areas where we can influence
students motivation to learn are:
Tasks for Learning
Task Value
Attainment value- significance of doing well on the task
Intrinsic value- the enjoyment a person gets from the task
Utility value: the contribution of a task to meeting one’s goals
Cost- negative consequences of completing task (looking awkward)

Build Genuine Appreciation
Using Authentic Tasks
Authentic tasks have a connection to real-life problems students will face outside of the classroom. Using these tasks leads to students see the value of their work.
An example of this would be Problem-based learning, which as teaching fractions by cutting and dividing food to share halves and quarters equally.


Supporting Autonomy and
Recognizing Accomplishment

Supporting Choices
Choices should allow students to follow their interests and choose from options so that their learning is important and relevant to them.

Bounded choice allows students to choose from options that are valuable tasks, but still allows them to follow personal interests. You can use a checklist, so students choose which skill they want their work to be graded on.

Recognizing
Accomplishment
We should recognize students for
improving their personal best, tackling
difficult tasks, persistence, and creativity.

When recognizing student it is important
to provide personal comments: Not
‘good job’ but instead ‘I really like how
you persevered to try different ways
to solve the word ___!’
Grouping, Evaluation,
and Time
Grouping and
Goal Structures
There are strong links between relationships
and motivation.
There are three goal structures that are used to motivate:

COOPERATIVE: The goal can only be achieved if other students also reach the goals. (Relay race, play, symphony, a barn raising)
COMPETITIVE: The goals can only be achieved if other students do not reach the goal. (Golf, singles tennis, valedictorian, pageants)
INDIVIDUALISTIC: The attempt to meet the goal is not related to the other students’ attempts. (Jogging, learning a language, stopping smoking)


Evaluation
Competitive evaluation leads to students focusing on performance goals (passing the test) rather then mastery. Teachers can fix this by deemphasizing grades and emphasizing learning.
Teachers should be flexible in their use of classroom time. When students are forced
to move faster or slower then they need to,
or are constantly being interrupted, are not
likely to develop persistence for learning.
Time
Diversity in Motivation
Connecting assignments and writing tasks to cultural contexts is shown to hold students’ interest. Immigrant students who were given writing topics about immigration, and bilingualism showed an improvement in paper length and quality, because the issues were important to them.

Encouraging bilingual students to draw upon English and their heritage language also shows an increase in motivation and participation.

Strategies to Encourage
Motivation
Four basic conditions need to be in place:
1. Organized classroom, free of
interruptions
2. Supportive, patient teacher who never embarrasses students for making mistakes
3. Challenging, but reasonable work
4. Learning must be authentic

Which goal structure do you
think is most effective for motivation? Do we need to encourage all of the structures?
Epistemological
Beliefs

Beliefs about the structure, stability, and certainty of knowledge,
and how knowledge is best learned.
Class Activity
list 3 things that help you learn material for an exam in order of helpfulness.
1.
2.
3.
What format of exam do you prefer and why? Essay, Multiple Choice, Short Answer, or alternative assignments.
Beliefs about Ability
Class Activity
As an adult, we can have two basic
views of ability, entity or incremental.

Entity view of ability is the belief that
ability is fixed and cannot be changed.

Incremental view would be the
opposite, you believe that it is a set of
skills that could be changed over time.
Beliefs about Causes
and Control
Beliefs about Self-Worth
Learned helplessness seems to develop when people believe that the events and outcomes of their lives are mostly uncontrollable.
Import Guidelines Encouraging Self-Worth from the textbook.

Questions?
Making sense of our successes or failures is very common; say you received an A+on an exam, what would be some explanations for you getting that grade?

What would be your reasoning if you failed that same test?
Success and Failures
According to Bernard Wiener, an educational psychologist, most of the causes for our personal success or failure we attribute can be characterized into three dimensions, the Locus, stability and controllability.


Self-efficacy also plays a major role in beliefs about causes and control. People with low self-efficacy tend to attribute their failures to a lack of ability. They might say they failed their math test because they are dumb.
Entity or Incremental
1. You have a certain amount of intelligence and you really cant do much about it

2. You can learn new things, but you can't really change your basic intelligence
3. No matter who you are, you can change your intelligence a lot

4. No matter how much intelligence you have, you can always change it quite a bit
How did Will Ferrell motivate his players? Is this this type of motivation appropriate for the classroom?
How can you, as a teacher reduce
your students' anxiety?
You ask your students to write a story. Create a checklist of valuable skills that the students can choose for you to look at while grading. Some examples are capitals and creativity. What are some other skills?
Activity
Thank you!
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