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Transcript of Macadamia Nut
Draw a plan of a macadamia farm and explain the preferred orchard layout and best growing conditions for macadamias and report on the pests and diseases that effect the plant. Orchard Layout Australian Macadamia Society 2000-2011, accessed 17, June 2011, ‹http://macadamias.org/›. Gilbert, A 2005, Just Nuts, Hyland House, Australia. Lyle, S 2006, Discovering Fruit & Nuts, Landlinks Press, Australia. Macadamias Best Growing Conditions for Macadamias prefer tropical climates as the macadamia originated in some of the subtropical rainforests on coastal Queensland. Planting distance for the macadamia tree can vary between 6 metres by 3 metres to 10 metres by 4 metres. When a macadamia tree reaches about 12-15 years farmers consider replacing it with new trees that will produce higher quality nuts. 3 Meters 6 t e s e M r Areas chosen to plant macadamia trees must be frost free as it may damage younger trees. Areas without strong winds are ideal to plant macadamia trees because the trees, especially younger trees, might get blown over. Pests Diseases and Macadamia Nutborer Fruit Spotting Bug Green Vegetable Bug The moth is brown and measures 23-25 mm across the wings. The male is smaller than the female. The eggs are laid singly on or near the macadamia. The Macadamia Nutborer larvae hatch and tunnel through to the seed and causes damage to the fruit.
There are two ways that farmers control this pest these are biologically and chemically. Cryptophlebia Ombrodelta Amblypelta Nitida Nezara Viridula The Fruit Spotting Bug is green and brown and about 15mm long. When scared or disturbed the bug may fly away, somersault down to lower branches or quickly hide on the plant behind fruit or under leaves. The bug damages the fruit by piercing the fruit and sucking the juice from the tissue and sometimes 90% of the green fruit on the outside may be lost.
There are three ways of getting rid of the fruit spotting bug these are culturally, biologically and chemically. Green Vegetable Bugs are bright green, shield shaped, 13-15mm long with three small white spots between their shoulders. Green Vegetable Bugs suck the nutrients out of the fruit leaving pin marks on the fruit. The eggs are laid in rafts with about 50-100 eggs laid per raft. The eggs take 6 days to hatch and newly hatched bugs are 1.5mm long.
There are three ways to control the Green Vegetable Bug, these are culturally, biologically and chemically. Rodents Rodentia Husk Spot Pseudocercospora Nuts that are infected by Husk Spot may cause early dropping of nuts and bad kernal quality. This disease is controlled by using fungicides like copper spray. Rodents cause nut damage by gnawing a hole in the hard shell. Farmers control this pest by placing bait stations around the farm and introducing natural predators like owls. Blossom Blight Botrytis Cinerea Anthracnose NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005, ‘Macadamia Culture in NSW’, Prime Facts, Janurary 2005, viewed 13 June, 2011, ‹http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/75740/Macadamia-culture-in-NSW-Primefact-5---final.pdf›. Blossom blight is a fungus that damages the flower of a macadamia tree during wet seasons. The spores of the fungus can travel in the air over long distances. It is controlled by using fungicides and sprays which can be difficult if the weather is wet. Colletotrichum Anthracnose is a fungal disease that creates deep spots on the macadamia fruit. Large brown circles may form around the spots. To control this disease regular fungicide sprays through the life cycle of the plant (from the flowering of the plant to the harvesting of the plant) are needed. Phytophthora Cinnamomi Trunk Canker Trunk canker is a fungus that can cause serious damage to the trees in the orchard and kill the younger trees. Fungus can get into the tree when it is damaged by farming equipment. Trees infected with this disease are usually small and have yellow leaves and produce low quality nuts. This fungus is treated with fungicides. Macadamia Flower Caterpillar Homoeosoma Vagella Macadamia Felted Coccid Eriococcus Ironsidei Macadamia Leafminer Acrocercops Chionosema These insects can grow up to 1.0mm in length. The females are white/grey and the males are brown. The Macadamia Felted Coccid may cause death to younger trees and damage to older ones. The Felted Coccid damages the tree by causing yellow spotting on effected leaves. The Macadamia Felted Coccid is a rare pest to macadamias. To control this pest farmers will spray the infected trees with insecticide. The Flower Caterpillar feeds on the flowerbuds. The larvae is light green/grey in colour and grows up to 12mm in length. They have a light coloured head and a stripe along the length of their body. Farmers control these using insecticides. The Macadamia Leafminer creates tunnels on the surface of the leaf of the macadamia tree. Eggs of the Macadamia Leafminer are about 0.5mm in size and are oval shaped. Farmers use chemical spray to control this pest. Macadamias need a well drained soil 1 - 2 metres deep. The soil should be high in organic matter. Macadamia orchards should be planted in a north-south position so sunlight will reach both sides of the tree. Macadamia problem solver & bug identifier 2003, accessed 12 June, 2011, ‹http://era.deedi.qld.gov.au/1964/11/mac-problemsolver_Part3.pdf›. You Tube 2010, accessed 12 June, 2011, ‹http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekwTID1hqg8&feature=related›. Queensland Government Primary Industries and Fisheries 1995-2011, accessed 4 June, 2011, ‹http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/26_17386.htm›. Macadamia Processing Company , accessed 5 June, 2011, ‹http://www.macadamia.au.com/faqs.html›. By Brittany Selwood Bibliography Glowinski, L 2008, The complete book of fruit growing in Australia, Hahette Australia, Australia. The End Baxter, P & Tankard, G 1990, The complete guide to growing fruit in Australia, Macmillan Australia, Australia. Google Maps 2011, accessed 11 June, 2011, ‹http://maps.google.com.au/maps?hl=en&tab=wl›.