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Rwanda - Development Paradigm Shifts from Economy to Human Capability
Transcript of Rwanda - Development Paradigm Shifts from Economy to Human Capability
Reflections going forward
2000- present day
- Between 150,000 and 250,000 women were raped and this spread the HIV/AIDS infection
- Poverty increased from 22% in 1982 to 52% in 1994
- There was a 30% decrease in the number of primary school students
After the Genocide
Human Development Index
The HDI is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development: - a long and healthy life,
- access to knowledge, and
- a decent standard of living.
Long and healthy life is measured by life expectancy.
Access to knowledge is measured by:
i) mean years of schooling for the adult population, and
ii) expected years of schooling for children of school-entrance age.
Standard of living is measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.
State Planning in Rwanda
Brief historical background
...to the Genocide
- Brief Historical Background
- 1960-1990 State Planning
- 1991 Structural Adjustment Programs
- The Genocide Impact
- After the Genocide- 1999
- 2000s HDIs and MDGs
State Planning in Rwanda (2)
Structural Adjustment Programs
Structural Adjustment Programs (2)
Unemployment, youth total (% of total labour forces ages 15-24)
Source: ReSAKSS, based on World Bank 2013
Source: United Nation Development Programme -1999
Source: World Bank Cross Country Data
After the Genocide - Court and Justice
International Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda
Countries fall into three broad categories based on their HDI: high, medium, and low human development.
Of the 50 African countries whose HDI were measured in the 2013 report released July this year, Rwanda ranked 151 world wide, and 21 in Africa.
Low Human Development Category
This table reviews Rwanda’s progress in each of the HDI indicators, from 1980 to 2012.
Rwanda's HDIs 1980-2012
Vision 2020 is a government strategy that sets out the key development priorities and indicators to be achieved by 2020.
According to this report, Rwanda’s economic growth has ignored the rural poor, with the country’s wealth a concentration of at the top of the income distribution bracket.
The Economic Development Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) replaced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, and is a medium-term framework (2008-2012) for achieving the longer-term development goals of Vision 2020, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Practices from Vision 2020 to MDGS
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals set by the United Nations member states agreed to achieved by the year 2015 in order to encourage the improvement of social and economic conditions in the world's poorest countries.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
In 2013 Rwanda ranked number one among the 48 African countries that have registered significant progress in achieving the MDGs (ONE 2013).
There are two significant social development goals that the government is on target are:
- universal free education by 2015 (95% children access primary education), and
- promoting gender equality (63.8% of the parliamentarians are women).
Education was made a high priority, with an allocation of 17% of the annual budget to the sector (World Review 2013).
To attract international donors the Rwandan government invested in gender mainstreaming (e.g. quotas in national machineries) to 'empower' women (Pearson 2008).
Rwanda's progress with MDGs
Economic growth rate has averaged more than 10% each year between 1994 and 2004, and about 5% each year since.
Despite its remarkable progression with the MDGs and economic growth Rwanda lags behind in halving the 1990 poverty rate by 2015. The 2010/2011 figure is only 2.5% points lower than the 1990 poverty rate.
Such a situation could lead the country to exhaust its ability to reduce poverty rates through economic growth alone.
In 2011 the GINI index rate was 50.8% (last recording).
What about poverty and inequality?
International donors have expressed concerns about democracy, human right violations and the persisting ‘genocide ideology’ (Straus & Waldorf 2011).
‘International donors, generally satisfied by the prospect of economic development, said little about the election irregularities or human right violations’ (Human Rights Watch Report 2009).
What about democracy and human rights?
President of Rwanda Paul Kagame, of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, is a Tutsi.
Jeffrey Sachs once served as special advisor to former UN Secretary Kofi Annan, who was charged with laying out an ‘operational plan’ for the MDGs (Peet & Hartwick 2009).
Sachs argues, ‘the key to ending extreme poverty is to enable the poorest of the poor to get their foot on the ladder of development’ (Sachs 2005).
Drawing from Walt Whitman Rostow’s The Stages of Development (1960):
- the traditional society
- the pre-take-off society
- the mass-consumption society (McKay 2004).
It is not surprising that we are seeing a concentrated focus on economic growth, even within the framework of human development.
Our concern is with Sachs’ argument and the modernisation is the ‘ability of those theories even to begin to understand the causes of world poverty’ (Peet & Hartwick 2009).
Return to Modernisation
Causes of Structural Adjustment Programs
Storey, A. (1999) ‘Economics and Ethnic Conflict: Structural Adjustment in Rwanda’, Development Policy Review, 17(1). pp. 42-63
Uvin, P. (1998) Aiding Violence. The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford, CT : Kumarian Press.
Uvin, P. (1996a) Tragedy in Rwanda: the political ecology of conflict, Environment, 38(3). pp 7-15
World Bank. (1993) Rwamda: Note de strategie Economique : Vers une Croissance Durable. Washington, DC : Report No. 12261-RW
BBC UK (March 2014) Rwanda Profile. Available at:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14093322 (accessed: 08/11/2014)
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World Bank Cross Country Data (August 2014), Rwanda: Unemployment, youth total. Available at: https://www.quandl.com/WORLDBANK/RWA_SL_UEM_1524_ZS-Rwanda-Unemployment-youth-total-of-total-labor-force-ages-15-24 accessed: 09/11/2014
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World Bank (2013) Annual Rwanda GDP growth rates, 1980 – 2011. available at: http://www.resakss.org/region/monitoring-progress/rwanda (accessed: 07/11/2014)
Braeckman, C. (1994) Rwanda : Historie d’un Genocide. Fayard: Bruxelles.
Choosudvosky, M. (1997) the Globalisation of Poverty : Impacets of IMF and World Bank Reforms. London and New Jersey : Zed books; Penang : Third World Network
Daniel Gakuba(2012) DW.Available at http://www.dw.de/rwanda-ends-gacaca-genocide-tribunals/a-16033827.(Accessed : 10 of November 2014)
Clark,P., Kaufman,Z.(2009) After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post –Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyone. New York: Columbia University Press
McKay, J., (2004) Reassessing Development Theory: Modernization and Beyond, in Kingsbury, D., Remenyi, J., McKay J., and Hunt J., Key Issues In Development. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
: the unemployment rate before the genocide was quite high due the low level of education of the people, however right after thanks to the government expenditures the situation improved.
: the level of the GDP in Rwanda has always been unstable, however with the beginning of the civil war and the genocide, it collapsed and only few years later, especially thanks to the international support, it increased again.
: this has always been a problem in Rwanda; the health system was very weak before the genocide, there was a lack of drugs and clinicians but during the genocide the situation got worse.
Joint Evaluation Assistance to Rwanda. (1996) The international Response to conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience: Rebuilding Post War Rwanda. Strandberg Grafisk, Odense
Straus,S., Waldorf, L. (2011). Remarking Rwanda: State Building and Human Rights after mass Violence. United State of America: The University of Wisconsin Press
United Nations Development Programme. (1999) Human Development Report 1999: Rwanda. unrwanda.org[e-book reader]. Available at: http://www.unrwanda.org/undp/hdr99.pdf (Accessed: 09 November 2014)
United Nations Development Programme. (2014) Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf (Accessed: 9 November 2014)
United Nations Development Programme. (2000) Poverty Reduction &Economic Management: Common Country Assessment -Rwanda. unrwanda.org[e-book reader]. Available at: http://www.unrwanda.org/undp/poverty_final.pdf (Accessed: 09 November 2014)
Source: Wikipedia, List of African countries by Human Development Index
Wikipedia, List of Presidents of Rwanda. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_Rwanda. (Accessed: 09 November 2014)
Wikipedia, List of African countries by Human Development Index. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African_countries_by_Human_Development_Index. (Accessed: 9 November 2014)
Peet, R., and Hartwick, E. (2009) Theories of development. Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives. London: The Guilford Press.
Kanyesigye, F., wanda Ranks Top in MDGs Progress. All Africa.com. 28 May 2013. Available at: http://allafrica.com/stories/201305290158.html (Accessed 9 November 2014)
United Nations Development Programme Rwanda (2007) Turning Vision 2020 to Reality. From Recovery to Sustainable Human Development. Available at: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Rwanda/Rwanda%20HDR%202007.pdf. (Accessed 8 November 2014)
Source: Human Development Report 2013, UNDP
Source: Human Development Report 2013, UNDP