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Transcript of Biotechnology
-Breeders chose an animal or plant that
has a trait that they want to be expressed in the
-This can take many generations
before the trait to become common.
Large fruits and vegetables
Dogs, Cows, Chickens
How would this be used today?
Problems with Inbreeding
Offspring are homozygous
for most traits
Happens when breeding
for a specific trait
What problems do you think
-Crossing two unlike organisms
Female horse X Male Donkey
- Bred for size and strength
Taking domestic corn (for quantity) and
maize (disease resistance)
Or Recombinant DNA Technology
Fast, more reliable method for increasing frequency of specific allele in a population.
A small fragment of DNA is cut from one organism and inserted into another host organism of a different species
Recombinant DNA forms when DNA fragments from different species is combined.
Resulting transgenic organisms contain functional recombinant DNA
ISOLATION OF FOREIGN DNA: a specific restriction enzyme is used to cut the required fragment of DNA
ATTACH DNA FRAGMENT TO A VECTOR: for transportation into the host. Vectors maybe plasmids, viruses, tiny metal bullets, micropipettes. (Gene splicing in plasmids.)
TRANSFER OF VECTOR INTO HOST ORGANISM
- creating a transgenic organism
The Steps to Make
a Transgenic Organism
Chemical that cuts DNA at a particular site.
Many restriction endonucleases
(restriction enzymes) recognize
sequences and cut them.
small ring of DNA found in a
bacterial cell that is used
as a biological vector
the places on a strand of DNA
where the restriction enzyme
cleaves the DNA.
Recessive traits are more
likely to be expressed
Brings out harmful recessive traits
since closely related organisms
are more likely to carry recessive
alleles for traits.
The dachshund breed of dogs was developed to dig out rodents, however it’s long slim body also makes it prone to slipped or ruptured disks in its vertebrae.
The large dogs such as St. Bernard’s have a problem with their hip bones developing arthritis as the dog gets old because of their size.
Test cross is used to determine
Cross the parent with unknown
genotype with an organism that
is homozygous recessive for the trait.
Observe the offspring.
Numerous test crosses required to
be sure you findings are correct.