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Biotechnology

Part 1
by

Mallorie Parks

on 5 November 2014

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Transcript of Biotechnology

BIOTECHNOLOGY
Applied Genetics
-Breeders chose an animal or plant that
has a trait that they want to be expressed in the
next generation
-This can take many generations
before the trait to become common.
Examples
Selective Breeding
Large fruits and vegetables
Dogs, Cows, Chickens



How would this be used today?
Farming? Animals?
Problems with Inbreeding
Offspring are homozygous
for most traits

Happens when breeding
for a specific trait

What problems do you think
would appear?
Hybridization
-Crossing two unlike organisms
-Mule
Female horse X Male Donkey
- Bred for size and strength

STERILE
Corn
Taking domestic corn (for quantity) and
maize (disease resistance)
Recombinant
DNA Technology
Genetic Engineering
How?
Or Recombinant DNA Technology

Fast, more reliable method for increasing frequency of specific allele in a population.
A small fragment of DNA is cut from one organism and inserted into another host organism of a different species
Recombinant DNA forms when DNA fragments from different species is combined.
Resulting transgenic organisms contain functional recombinant DNA
ISOLATION OF FOREIGN DNA: a specific restriction enzyme is used to cut the required fragment of DNA
ATTACH DNA FRAGMENT TO A VECTOR: for transportation into the host. Vectors maybe plasmids, viruses, tiny metal bullets, micropipettes. (Gene splicing in plasmids.)
TRANSFER OF VECTOR INTO HOST ORGANISM
- creating a transgenic organism
The Steps to Make
a Transgenic Organism
Palindrome
Restriction Enzymes
Chemical that cuts DNA at a particular site.
Many restriction endonucleases
(restriction enzymes) recognize
specific palindromic
sequences and cut them.

EWE
LEVEL
MUM
NOON
PEEP
RACE CAR
Plasmid
small ring of DNA found in a
bacterial cell that is used
as a biological vector
Cleavage Site
the places on a strand of DNA
where the restriction enzyme
cleaves the DNA.
Recessive traits are more
likely to be expressed

Brings out harmful recessive traits
since closely related organisms
are more likely to carry recessive
alleles for traits.


For Example:
The dachshund breed of dogs was developed to dig out rodents, however it’s long slim body also makes it prone to slipped or ruptured disks in its vertebrae.
The large dogs such as St. Bernard’s have a problem with their hip bones developing arthritis as the dog gets old because of their size.

DETERMINING GENOTYPE
Test cross is used to determine
parental genotype.
Cross the parent with unknown
genotype with an organism that
is homozygous recessive for the trait.
Observe the offspring.
Numerous test crosses required to
be sure you findings are correct.
Full transcript