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marta maggia

on 22 September 2013

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Transcript of ATP

Cells require energy
Where does energy in the cell
come from?
Exergonic reactions
Endergonic reactions
Adenosin Triphosphate
Cells can't create energy by themselves
but they need to take in energy by the surroundings.

Part of the energy they transform from one form into another is lost as heat and cells
use energy to do work.
Reactions that release (give out) energy are
known as
exergonic reactions
Their final energy state is less than
their initial state.
On the other hand, reactions that absorb (take in) energy are called
endergonic reactions.
In an endergonic reaction the energy of the initial state is lower than the energy of the final state.
Synthesizing large molecules like DNA, RNA and proteins
Pumping molecules or ions across membranes by active transport
Moving things around the cell, such as chromosomes, vescicles, or in muscle cells the protein fibers that cause muscle contraction
Most cells reactions use the same energy source, the energy-carrier

Initial state
Final state
Initial state
Final state
Metabolism subdivides into two categories:
(activity 2)
Catabolic metabolism
Energy-releasing reactions (exergonic reactions) which break large molecules into smaller pieces.

Examples of catabolism are the digestion of complex food and the breakdown of sugar in cellular respiration.
Anabolic metabolism
Energy-releasing reactions (endergonic reactions) which build up larger molecules, necessary for life, from smaller molecules.

Examples of anabolism are the synthesis of proteins from amino acids and the synthesis of polysaccharides from simple sugars.
(Activity 4)
Catabolism implies release of energy,
whereas anabolism implies capture of energy.
The sum of chemical reactions
(endergonic and exergonic reactions)
taking place in the cell, is referred to as
Catabolism means disintagration, disorganisation of matter,
whereas anabolism means
reorganisation of matter.
ATP is a nucleotide
A nucleotide consists of three substances combined together. These are:

a nitrogenous base (adenine)
a pentose sugar (ribose)
three phosphate groups linked together in a linear sequence
ATP is universal
ATP is referred to as "energy currency"
It is reffered to as "energy currency" because, like money, it can be used in different contexts and it is constantly recycled.
Facts about
ATP was present 3.5 billion years ago when life began.
Because all living cells are related to the first cell(s), ATP became universal.
ATP moves easily
ATP is a substance that moves easily within cells and organisms.
Nevertheless, each cell has to build up its own ATP.
How does ATP work?
In cells, ATP is formed from ADP and phosphate ion (Pi) using energy from respiration
ADP + Pi + energy---> ATP + H2O

ATP stores energy in the bonds between phosphate groups and releases it at hydrolysis.

ATP hydrolysis (exergonic reaction):
ATP + H2O -----> ADP + Pi + energy
In other words.....
Cells obey to the Termodinamics laws!
Countless chemical reactions take
place in cells and are responsible
for all actions of organisms.
The chemical reactions
can be divided into:
The energy of reactants is _______ than energy of products
The energy of reactants is ___________ than energy of products.
ATP synthesis (endergonic reaction):
ADP + Pi + energy -----> ATP + H2O
(Activity 5 and 6)
Full transcript