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Music Therapy and Autism
Transcript of Music Therapy and Autism
Description, Etiology and Statistics
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
1 in 88 children has been identified with ASD.
This number is coming close to doubling since the year 2000.
5 times more common in boys than in girls.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects brain development.
Areas of developmental need commonly include
increased regulation regarding awareness of environment.
The AMTA stresses the importance of music therapy research as related to ASD, in order to contribute to treatment/therapy needs-at-large.
Music Therapy Strategic Priority
The causes for autism continue to be a subject great interest, and of great controversy. Genetic, cognitive, and environmental factors all continue to be measured.
Difficulty with change in routine
Tendency to prefer to control environment for this reason.
Repetitive motor and verbal mannerisms
Strength: can be highly receptive to rote learning processes.
Over stimulation or lack of appropriate stimulation can lead to anxiety, restlessness, and resulting behaviors.
Difficulty with maintaining attention, focus to task.
Independent play preference common
May prefer interaction with objects to interaction with people
Broad spectrum of communication potential, including inability to verbalize all the way up to articulate orators.
Repetitive language behaviors, such as echolalia (immediate), and "scripting" (delayed echolalia).
Delayed ability to label or request items.
Can be off-topic in conversation/discussion.
Care Needs and
Common Domains of Interest:
way of organizing sensory input.
Potential need for particular types of sensory stimulation
Definitions: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV and DSM V -
Quality of Life:
"Children with autism were significantly less likely to attend religious services, more likely to miss school, and less likely to participate in organized activities. Parental concerns over learning difficulty, being bullied, stress-coping, and achievement were overwhelming in the autism group relative to the comparison groups."
Present level of functioning/performance.
Specific areas for growth
Discussion as to how music therapy addresses growth/needs.
Music therapy goals
Major points in any MT assessment.
Major points in any MT assessment!
Referral either through agencies or through contacts.
No standardized assessment processes. Agencies may use particular formats.
Assessment should show how music therapy plays a role in facilitating development in need areas.
Informal Referral by parent or an educational professional (teacher, administrator, counselor, speech-language pathologist, etc.)
Referral formalized through and Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meeting
Assessment Process: SEMTAP – Assesses if music therapy is educationally necessary.
School District Setting
Referrals and Assessment
Music as Group Play/Process
Music as Communication
Music as Sensory Experience
Music as Structure
Autism spectrum disorder:
"qualitative impairment in social interaction...."
"qualitative impairments in communication...."
"delays or abnormal functioning (in above, as well as) symbolic or imaginary play."
Mand: "soft" versus "pure"
Twinkle twinkle little.....
A kitty says......
What do you like to eat?
Fundamental Verbal Behavior Terms
deletion of words in text (or in our case, a lyric/melody) in order to facilitate verbal identification/expression of an item.
(Picture Exchange Communication System)
A Type of augmentative communication system that uses pictures. Designed to teach functional communication.
Why does music therapy play a role?
seeks to ensure correct responses
The use of organized, sequenced steps in order to learn appropriate behavior in a social context.