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CLASSICAL TO MODERN LIBERALISM
Transcript of CLASSICAL TO MODERN LIBERALISM
Is an ideology belonging to liberalism in which primary emphasis is place on securing the freedom of the individual by limiting the power of the government.
Definition of classical liberalism
Combines social liberalism with support of social justice and a mixed economy.
Definition of modern liberalism
History of classical liberalism
Evolution of classical liberal thought
Modern liberalism in the United States
The Renaissance (14th to 16th century )
The Protestant Reformation (beginning 1517)
The Enlightenment (18th century)
the age of Reason(acceptance of the power of human reason)
the worth of individual
natural and inalienable rights
authority rests with the people, not the rule
American Revolution (1776)
French Revolution (1789)
the power of the market
individual reward for individual initiative
freedom to pursue personal wealth
individual responsibility for success or failure
progress, inventiveness,innovation, efficiency
is a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
During 18th Century, classical liberalism was born out of the ideas of the Enlightenment (political parent) and the Industrial Revolution (economic parent )
awareness of individualism
growth of secularism
The industrial Revolution (18th and 19th century )
Classical liberalism developed from the thinking of individuals such as Locke, Montesquieu, and Mill,who were concerned with protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens.
Liberalism gradually evolved an ideology as the idea of the enlightenment thinkers were applied to specific situation. For example, the French Revolution in 1789-1799.
Prior to the French Revolution, the government was bankrupt and the corrupt, inefficient , and outdated taxation system made matter worse. The French government was also saddled with the debt resulting from the many wars it had been involved in, including helping to fund the American War of Independence. Worst of all was the continuing indiscriminate spending of the king and his court.
The leaders of the Revolution believed in the principles of liberalism, but they depended on the support of ordinary people, who quickly developed a mob mentality .
Maximilien Robespterre is one of the best-known leaders of the Revolution. He summed up the frustration the French peopel felt at that time .
The Revolution degenerated into a region of terror in which thousands lost their property and lives.
However, the Revolution still produced some important documents that reveal the influence of liberal thought on French society.
...is synonymous with a faith in reason, which had arisen out of the Enlightenment as a reaction to claims of divine rule by the clergy and royalty of the late Middle Ages.
Liberal freedoms were primarily freedoms of the mind: freedom of thought, of expression, of religion, and of self-invention without regard to the customs of caste, creed, or crown.
Classical liberalism implied both an ability and a responsibility of people to think for themselves, to create their own destinies, and to follow their own consciences.
Baron de Montesquieu
John Stuart Mill
Modern liberalism is not completely collectivist; nor is it completely individualistic. It has elements of both doctrines.
In the 1880s, sociologist Lester Frank Ward transformed Victorian liberalism, retaining its commitment to civil liberties and individual rights while casting off its advocacy of laissez-faire economics.
They at times supported the growing working-class labor unions, and sometimes even the socialists to their left.
These liberals rallied behind Theodore Roosevelt, Robert LaFollette and Woodrow Wilson to fight big trusts (big corporations).
They stressed ideals of social justice and the use of government to solve social and economic problems.
There was a tension between sympathy with labor unions and the goal to apply scientific expertise by disinterested experts.
in the 1940s, liberals became anti-Communist
combines social liberalism with support for social justice and a mixed economy.
voting rights for African Americans
abortion rights for women
Modern American liberals value institutions that defend against economic inequality.
Political spectrum of modern and classical liberalism
general-welfare component assigns government three important social and economic functions to smooth the rough edges of capitalism
macroeconomic policy--- government to manage the overall economy in order to minimize unemployment and inflation and encourage growth
government is asked to provide needy individuals with basic goods and services.
to enact measures to protect the public from the perils of industrial life--which they as individuals acting alone cannot reasonably be expected to cope.
The Neo-Conservative Movement
began in the United States in the 1950’s and 60’s
believed that modern liberal principles went too far.
Economic policy favors cutting taxes and reducing government’s role in the economy
Believe too many services are provided by governments and look for private sector to take over some of these services
Further believe that foreign policy should promote patriotism, oppose world government and support the advancement of Democratic capitalism in other countries
Traditional views in social issues: seek to promote traditional values, oppose abortion and same-sex relationships.
The Religious Perspective
Liberal democracies support freedom of religion.
Some religions have principles that conflict with principles of Liberalism. For example:
Doukhobors-refused to swear oath of loyalty to country. The land removed in early 20th century
Hutterites-refused to serve in the military as conscientious objectors. Recently wanted to be excused fro having photo on their drivers license.
Sikhs-Wearing Turbans / kirpans.
On one hand industry, and chemical production have dramatically increased life spans and improved food supplies and life spans.
On the other hand, pollution associated with modern lifestyles have created new dangers to the health of our planet.
Many believe that economic progress and environmental concerns are incompatible
Alterman, E. (n.d.). How Classical Liberalism Morphed Into New Deal Liberalism | Center for American Progress. Center for American Progress. Retrieved September 28, 2013, from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/media/news/2012/04/26/11379/think-again-how-classical-liberalism-morphed-into-new-deal-liberalism/
Butters, T. (n.d.). What Was Liberalism in the French & American Revolutions? | eHow. eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you.. Retrieved September 28, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/info_10002892_liberalism-french-american-revolutions.html#ixzz2fH7JPDcp
Chapter 6: The Evolution of Modern Liberalism flashcards | Quizlet. (n.d.).Simple free learning tools for students and teachers | Quizlet. Retrieved October 2, 2013, from http://quizlet.com/21132114/chapter-6-the-evolution-of-modern-liberalism-flash-cards/
Classical liberalism. (n.d.). Princeton University - Home. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Classical_liberalism.html
Goodman, J. C. (n.d.). Classical Liberalism vs. Modern Liberalism and Modern Conservatism | NCPA. Free-Market Public Policy | National Center for Policy Analysis | NCPA. Retrieved September 28, 2013, from http://www.ncpa.org/pub/classical-liberalism-vs-modern-liberalism-and-modern-conservatism
Liberalism and Its Origins. (n.d.). UK Apologetics. Retrieved September 28, 2013, from http://www.ukapologetics.net/2liberalismsro
Main Ideas of General-welfare Liberalism. (n.d.). Welcome to the University of Delaware. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http://www.udel.edu/htr/American/Texts/weliber.html
The Spirit of the Laws - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 25, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_
How did modern liberalism developed:
Theodore Roosevelt introduced the Meat Inspection Act (1906) and the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906); addressing food safety concerns, his administration used the Elkins Act (1903) and the Hepburn Act (1906) to stop railroads from offering preferential treatment to some of their corporate customers, such as Standard Oil.
The roaring twenties:
nickname given to the 1920s which emphasized social, artistic, and cultural change
North American Free Market
economy expanded and rapidly modernized, major social changes; women obtained the right to vote; Native Americans were granted citizenship by the Indian Citizenship Act(1924)
Stock Market Crash: In 1929, this caused a worldwide Depression; the result of speculation of stocks and commodities. Most Americans had some sort of wealth tied up in the Stock Market, so the bottoming out of that in conjunction with many banks closing and savings being lost completely, the economy of America was destroyed.
New Deal:the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Inflation:Roosevelt felt that in times of prosperity, government should control inflation with measures such as raising taxes, using a central bank to raise interest rates, and decreasing government spending
Due to economic freedom of classical liberalism, it caused for the great depression which made people use programs to provide economic equality (modern liberalism)
Limited Government involvement→ Organized labor→ Government intervenes to create equalities.(modern)