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Health and Wellness

Human Reproductive Anatomy, STD's, Birth Control

Monica Gilles

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Health and Wellness

Health and Wellness Vagina: The passage way in a woman that extends from the vulva to the cervix. It is important to note that the Vagina and the urethra are separate.
Place where the ovum (eggs) are produced in the female reproductive system.

Females are born with a set amount of eggs at birth. At puberty one or more of these eggs will mature and be released. It will then be grabbed by the Fallopian Tubes. This will happen once a month from puberty until menopause, when the eggs will eventually dry up and will no longer be good for fertilization. This will use about 400 eggs in a woman's lifetime. Fallopian tubes are the tubes that eggs follow on their way to the uterus. The tubes are actually not connected to the ovaries in any way. After an egg is released it takes 3-4 days for an egg to pass through the tube.

If sperm is going fertilize an egg (pregnancy) it usually happens in the fallopian tubes and then the the fertilized egg will move and implant itself in the lining of the uterus. Vagina Ovaries: Fallopian Tubes: Uterus : Where the fertilized egg will grow. If you are pregnant the fetus grows in the uterus.
Once a female has reached puberty the lining of the uterus also known as the endometrium sheds, which will result in menstruation. Female Reproductive System * The Cervix is the site of one of the most common and deadliest type of cancer in women. Therefore, it is important whether you are sexually inexperienced or active to get a yearly Pap smear. Cervix: The narrow lower end of the uterus that connects the uterus to the vagina.
When a woman goes into labor it is her cervix that will dilate (widen and thin out) so that the baby's head can fit through the uterus and exit out through the vagina. The hymen is a thin membrane that partially covers the opening to the vagina. Many cultures believe that the breaking and bleeding of the hymen when a woman has sex is a good indicator of whether or not a female is a virgin. In fact, during the time of the biblical Hebrews, a newly wed woman who did not bleed doing her first intercourse was sometimes stoned to death.

However, the idea that you can tell whether or not a female is a virgin by whether or not she bleeds when you have sex with her the first time is false. Hymens come in many shapes and sizes and can be ruptured by physical activity, tampons, etc. years before a female has sex. To further complicate matters, in some females the hymen with stretch instead of tear the first time they have intercourse. The Hymen- Menstrual Cycle Menstrual cycle- When a female is born they are born with about 300,00-400,000 follicles (immature eggs) in each ovary. They do not produce any more during their lifetime. About 1,000 a month begin to mature after birth. However, they don't mature all the way. By puberty there are only about 200,000 left in each ovary. Preovulatory Phase- In the preovulatory phase the egg matures and starts to develop.
In addition, the endometrium (lining of the uterus) starts to grow in order to provide a supportive and protective environment for a fertilized egg.

Ovulation- The egg is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity. Where it will be picked up by the Fallopian tube. Postovulatory Phase- The endometrium continues to thicken. The egg continues to move through Fallopian Tubes.

If the egg is fertilized by sperm it implants itself in the endometrium, this is pregnancy, you will not have a "period". If the egg is not fertilized it continues into the cervix and menstruation will start. Menstruation- Over a 3-6 day period the thickened endometrial tissue, cervical mucus, and blood (4-6 tablespoons per period) is sloughed off. A new cycle begins again. Myth #1: If a female doesn't bleed when she has sex for the first time then she wasn't really a virgin. The Period. Myth: A woman's period is always is exactly 28 days. False: A woman's period can vary incredibly. In fact most woman's cycles vary in length by 8 days or more. Most women will not have 28 day cycles until they are well into their 30's or older. Many things can affect the length of a cycle; stress, nutrition, illness, drugs, even other women's cycles. So, if you or your girlfriend's period is a little bit late or early, do not fear or schedule a pregnancy test for at least an extra week. . PMS Premenstrual Syndrome Myth: A woman who has just had her period claims that she is experiencing PMS. Truth: Impossible!!!

Premenstrual Syndrome refers to a group of physical and/or emotional symptoms certain women MAY experience 3-14 days BEFORE their period. These symptoms may be anything from boating, breast tenderness, abdominal swelling, hands and feet swelling, weight gain, constipation, to anxiety, depression, tension, irritability, and inability to concentrate. Most women who have PMS do not experience all symptoms, and these symptoms are only classified as PMS if they occur REGULARLY before menstruation and a few days after the start of menstruation. If you think you have PMs try changing your diet, cut down on salt and caffeine, investigate over the counter medications, etc.... If you feel as is your PMS is still markedly interfering with your social relations, work, or education, then you may need to see a doctor about a other possible diagnosesses like PMD. Researchers who have studies PMS think it's a term that is overused and MISUSED. They claim that most women do not have a recurrent pattern of premenstrual mood changed and mistakenly think that high stress, poor health, and work problems are PMS. When asked to complete surveys about these problems men score just as high as women who think they have PMS. Myth: Women can not have high pressure jobs, such as holding public office because of their "raging hormonal influences". Truth: Really?

There are probably just as many men with severe emotional problems that would make them unfit for office. At most only sufferers of PMDD who were not helped by medication would need to think about how their hormones would affect their ability to do their jobs. Penis- The penis is Latin for tail. The penis is designed for 2 uses.
1). Deposit sperm into the vagina.
2). Eliminate Urine from the Body. There are three parts to the penis
1). The Shaft *
2). The Glans *
3). The Root * Only these two are visible. What is an erection?
The penis is made of spongy tissue called the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. During an erection a man's penis dilates (gets bigger) and the many cavities of the of these cylinders fill with blood, also valves that would drain the penis of blood are cut off. This causes the penis to become erect. Myth: The penis is made out of bone, which is why people call it a "boner".
False: The penis is not made out of a bone in humans, it is actually made up of spongy tissue with caverns. These caverns fill up with blood when a man is aroused thus causing an erection. The glans- The rounded end of the penis. At birth the foreskin covers the glans, but many men have had this cut off during circumcision. The Root- the part of the penis inside the body. This attaches the penis to the pelvic bone. Also their are 2 muscles that aid in ejaculation and urination. The scrotum- the sac located beneath penis. It holds the testes outside of the body cavity.

Sperm are produced EVERYDAY in the testicles, but they can only do this at lower than body temperature (98.6). Because the scrotal sac is away from the body, the scrotal temp. is about 93 degrees. The Testicles - In the testes MILLIONS of sperm are produced each day!!! In addition to sperm the testicles produce the hormones testosterone and inhibin.

The testes are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord. It moves the testes up and down depending on the desired environment and level of sexual arousal (the testes get closer to the body when a man is aroused and when it is cold outside.) Fun and Not-So-Fun Facts: The word testes comes from the Latin word for witness (to testify). People shake hands when they make a deal or promise today, but in biblical times a man held the testicles of the man to whom he was making a deal with. The idea was that if you broke your oath that the children of the other man could take revenge. If you are right handed your left testicle usually hangs lower, and vice versa. Inside the testes, sperm are produced in small but numerous (several hundred) seminiferous tubes. 1). Testicles
2). Epididymis
3). Vas deferens
4). Seminal Vesicle
5). Cowper's Gland
6). Urethra The testicles have two main functions,
1). Create Sperm, and 2). Create male hormones. *Bad things that can happen to your testicles. In this rare condition. A man's spermatic cord becomes twisted and cuts off the blood supply to the testes. This may cause them to be removed over time.
Seek emergency care if you have:
Sudden or severe pain in the scrotum,
Swelling of the scrotum,
Abdominal pain,
Nausea and vomiting,
A testicle that's positioned higher than normal or at an unusual angle. * Bad things that can happen to your penis. "Breaking Your Penis"- It is possible to have sex and if the erect penis is put in a position where there is too much force placed on it, then the spongy tissue inside of it could rupture/break. See a doctor immediately.

Aggressive or risky sexual positions can play a role in this, so you may want to think twice before having over-the-top, acrobatic sex.

“Men should avoid any situation in which the erect penis is forcefully bent. The force necessary to cause this injury may occur during sexual intercourse when the partner is on top and bends too far forward or backward. Also, if the penis slips out of the vagina, and the man rapidly attempts to reinsert it and misses, the penis may hit the partner’s pubic bone, also creating this type of injury.” Testicular rupture can also happen, but it is a rare type of testicular trauma. This can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against the pubic bone (the bone that forms the front of the pelvis), causing blood to leak into the scrotum. Testicular rupture, like testicular torsion and other serious injuries to the testicles, causes extreme pain, swelling in the scrotum, nausea, and vomiting. To fix the problem, surgery is necessary to repair the ruptured testicle. Testicular Rupture- Testicular Torsion- Testicular Cancer- Cancer of the testicle is not very common in general, but it is the most common type of cancer for men ages 15-35. It is important to do a testicular self exam once a month. If you feel an unusual lump it is important to see your doctor, and get early detection, as there is a 95% chance of survival. The Sperm Road Trip- What happens during ejaculation does NOT stay in an ejaculation...Eww. Sperm are produced in the testicles (seminiferous tubules). After sperm are produced, they move to the epididymis where they mature (this can be felt on the top and back of each testicle). It takes about 6 weeks for the sperm to travel through the epididymis, during this time they become better able to move around more and more fertile. After the sperm make it through the epididymis they hit the Vas Deferens. The Vas Deferens are two tubes that start in the spermatic cord in the scrotum. From the scrotum the Vas Deferens goes into the abdominal cavity, and up and over the bladder. Seminal Vesicles- The Seminal Vesicles add semen into an ejaculation. While there are some 200 MILLION - 300 MILLION sperm in an ejaculation, sperm does not make up the majority of the fluid. The majority of the fluid is from the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland.

The seminal vesicles add a lot of stuff to semen, but most notably they add fructose- which activates sperm and makes them move, a substance which causes the uterus to contract and helps the sperm move through it to the egg, and bases- which neutralize the acidity of the vagina.The prostate gland also secretes all of these fluids in addition to another substance that causes semen to coagulate after ejaculation so that it does not spill out of the vagina. In addition to picking up fluid in the prostate, the sperm also pick up fluid in the Cowper's Gland. The Prostate- The prostate is the site of the second most common type of cancer. Men after the age of 40 need to get this checked annually. Cowper's Glands- The Cowper's Glands are two pea sized structures located beneath the prostate. They secrete a few drops of a fluid (a base) that may appear at the penis prior to orgasm. The fluid is used to neutralize the acidity of the urethra so sperm are not destroyed while exiting out of a man's body. This fluid (also called Pre-ejaculate) often contains sperm*.
This is why THE PULLOUT METHOD DOES NOT WORK! A Single ejaculation contains between 200-300 million sperm. Sperm can live for a few hours outside the body, but can live for up to 7 days inside the upper reproductive tract of a female. The Urethra- Sperm pass through the urethra, and then exit the body. Urine also passes through the urethra. However, there is a valve so that no urine will mix with the semen. The Route Sperm Takes During Ejaculation Myth: You will not get a girl pregnant if you use the pullout method.

Truth: As we learned earlier, there Cowper's Glands secrete a base and sperm before a man ejaculates. Therefore, if you you are using the pullout method there is a strong potential you could still get pregnant because the sperm in the preejaculate at the end of the penis would enter the vagina the man ejaculated. Sexually transmitted are diseases that can be, but not always are, transmitted through sexual contact (including vaginal and anal intercourse and oral-genital contact). In other words, you do not always have to have vaginal to penile sex in order to contract an STD. Types of sexually transmitted diseases: Bacteria- Very small single celled organisms. Can only live outside the body for a short period of time. Can reproduce themselves. Viruses- A protein shell around an acid core. Can't reproduce themselves so they have to invade your cells. They then transform your cells from doing what they are supposed to do, to reproducing the virus. Viruses can only live outside the body for a short period of time. Parasites- A parasite is an organism that lives in or on another organism. It steals nutrients from the host to survive. What are Sexually RELATED diseases? Sexually related diseases are diseases of the sexual organs caused by over growths of yeast or fungal organisms, but they can be passed during sex. Gonorrhea - AkA The Clap, or The Drip is probably the oldest of all the STDs. There will be 800,000 new cases of Gonorrhea this year. The rates for gonorrhea are almost 100 times higher than other developed countries. * GONORRHEA Causes: Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium. It lives on warm moist mucous membranes in the urethra, vagina, rectum, mouth, throat, and eyes. A person gets gonorrhea by having his or her mucus membranes come in contact with infected mucus membranes, this is usually through intimate contact.
This bacteria can be found for a short time outside the body, but your chances of picking it up are extremely small, even on a something like a toilet seat. In men who become infected during sexual intercourse, the bacteria will cause inflammation of the urethra. This causes thick, pus-like, white or yellowish discharge 2-10 days after infection. There is also usually irritation or a burning sensation at the urethral opening. Urination is often frequent and painful, many men have used the term "peeing knives". Because the symptoms are painful and obvious, men usually seek treatment immediately. However, there are no symptoms in 25% of men. * What are STD's? In women, gonorrhea normally invades the cervix, but most women show no symptoms during early stages. Most are unaware that they even have gonorrhea, until their partner tells them after he has been diagnosed, and can unknowingly pass it to other partners. Only 20-40% of women show symptoms.

In those that do, they may have abnormal vaginal discharge, irritation of the vulva (the outer parts of the vagina) and the urethra, causing burning during urination. Because so many women don't have symptoms, they usually don't seek treatment. Eventually, it will spread through the uterus into the Fallopian tubes and will cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. PID can cause the tubes to scar, which can cause blockage. The tubes are only about the size of a pencil, with the passageway only being about the size of the lead in the pencil. Therefore, this type of scarring can lead to infertility and dangerous tubal pregnancies. Pregnant women can even pass it to their children as they give birth. This can lead to blindness. TREATMENT: If you have had sex with someone who has gonorrhea, or you think you have gonorrhea get tested immediately. The doctor will have you give a urine sample and then if you have it they will give you antibiotics like penicillin or tetracylcine. If you are positive for gonorrhea you need to tell your partners so that they don't spread the disease. Be careful with your sexual activity, because gonorrhea is not like chicken pox, you will NOT become immune. YOU CAN CATCH IT AGAIN AND AGAIN. CHLAMYDIA Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD. There will be 4 million new cases this year. It is known as a "silent disease" because the majority of people don't know they have it because they don't have symptoms. If a person experiences symptoms, then they usually are milder than gonorrhea, but if left untreated it can cause more damage. How is it spread?

Chlamydia lives on the moist mucus membranes. It is spread when one person's membrane comes in contact with an infected person's membrane. It can be passed from vaginal, anal, or oral sex. You can even contract chlamydia of the eye by a hand or other body part if it has been moistened with secretions and then comes in contact with the eye. A mother can pass chlamydia from herself to her child during birth. Symptoms:

Chlamydia symptoms usually appear between 1 and 3 weeks after exposure but may not emerge until much later. Chlamydia is known as the ‘silent’ disease because for many people it produces NO SYMPTOMS. It is estimated that 70-75% of women infected with chlamydia are asymptomatic (have no symptoms) and large portion of men have no symptoms.

Those who do have symptoms of chlamydia may experience the following: When it comes to STDs people always think, "It won't happen to me," but STDs are extremely common. In fact:
* 1 IN 2 Americans WILL HAVE AN STD AT SOME POINT IN THEIR lifetime.
* By the age of 24, 1 out of 3 sexually active people will have contracted an STD.
* 15-24 year olds count for 2/3rds of all STD cases.
* Despite advances in treatment and prevention the United States continues to have the highest STD rates of any country in the industrialized world. Treatment:

If you think you have chlamydia or had sexual intercourse with someone who had or you suspect had chlamydia then you need to get tested. The doctor will require that you have a urine test, and if you do have chlamydia your healthcare provider will prescribe antibiotics.
Timely diagnosis is important because if chlamydia is left untreated, even if you have no symptoms it can cause sterilization in men, and sterilization in women by way of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID is the general term for any infection that starts in the vagina or cervix and moves up into the Fallopian tubes or even the ovaries and the pelvic cavity. It is caused by a variety of infections, but 50-75% of PID cases are caused by untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea. One in seven women of reproductive age has PID. Symptoms: Tenderness or pain in the lower abdomen (sometimes so much so that standing up is impossible), high fever, and chills. Some people may only have a persistent low-grade infection, either with no symptoms or occasional abdominal cramps.

Long term infection can result in pelvic adhesions and abscesses. Long Term Effects:

If left untreated PID can cause scarring inside the Fallopian tubes. Unfortunately the Fallopian tube is only the diameter of a human hair, therefore, even a little bit of scarring can result in a life-threatening ectopic pregnancy or in permanent sterility. The chances of becoming sterile from PID increase from 11% after one case to 54% after three.

The rates of ectopic pregnancy and infertility have increased dramatically over the last 2 decades. Experts attribute this to the increased rates of STDs. PID adhesions (scarring) PID with ectopic pregnancy. PID with ectopic pregnancy. Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterium transmitted by sexual contact. However, unlike gonorrhea and chlamydia which require mucus membrane contact, syphilis can pass through any tiny cut or scrape into the bloodstream. You can get syphilis by just touching the sores of a person with syphilis.

A mother can also pass syphilis from herself to an unborn child. The child may be born stillborn, aborted, or born with congenital syphilis which can cause deformation, blindness, deafness, and other abnormalities that can cause early death. Also, syphilis has severe consequences if left untreated. In fact, 100 million people worldwide have died from syphilis. Symptoms: The symptoms of syphilis usually occur in four stages. If a person has been infected with syphilis the first symptoms usually appear 2-4 weeks after infection. It depends on the amount you have been infected with. If it is a small amount, then it might take as long as 90 days, or if a large amount then as short as 10. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils. Primary Stage of Syphilis: This stage begins with the appearance of a very ugly ulcer-like sore called a chancre, which shows up where the bacteria entered the body (usually, the penis, cervix, lips, tongue, or anus). The chancre is usually painless, but highly infectious. Therefore, many people do not get treated. Even without treatment the sore usually disappears in about 10-14 days. However, the bacterium still stays in your blood stream, so you are still infected and infectious even after the chancre disappears. Secondary Stage:
4-6 weeks after the chancre heals the secondary stage starts.
An itchless and painless rash will appear all over the body, it will even cover the hands and the feet.

The rash is usually rough, red, or reddish brown with spots both on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. However, rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body, sometimes even resembling rashes caused by other diseases. Most of the time people will seek treatment because these symptoms bother them, but sometimes, people mistake the symptoms for other diseases or problems (like allergies, measles, etc). Further confusing the matter is that syphilis is known as the "Great Imitator" and can sometimes be confusing to diagnose. If treatment is not still obtained the symptoms will disappear within several weeks to a year and not return. Latent stage: You will no longer be contagious, and will have no noticeable symptoms. However, the bacterium is still attacking the body, particularly the HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, BRAIN, and SPINAL CORD.
At this point, about 2/3 or people will not have any more problems with the disease, but the other third will enter what is referred to as the TERTIARY STAGE. Syphilis in children: Syphilis can be easily passed from mother to child while the child is in utero. As mentioned before, this can cause the fetus to be aborted, born stillborn, or born with congenital syphilis. Congenital syphilis causes deformities of the bones and teeth, blindness, and deafness, and other birth defects. Treatment: Samples from a chancre or sore will be taken, in addition to blood tests. Usually a syphilis sufferer will be given penicillin G or some other type of antibiotics, which usually completely wipes out the disease. Unfortunately, while antibiotics can kill syphilis, it cannot reverse any organ damage.

*** Remember that SYPHILIS IS TREATABLE!!! There is no reason that anyone should DIE, GO INSANE, SUFFER THROUGH ORGAN DAMAGE OR ULCERATIONS because SYPHILIS CAN BE CURED WITH ANTIBIOTICS!!!! If you suspect you have syphilis, seek treatment immediately!!! TERTIARY STAGE: Large ulcers called gummas will appear on skin and bones. The bacteria is still attacking the body. Damage to the heart and blood vessels frequently results in DEATH and damage to the central nervous system can lead to PARALYSIS, INSANITY, and/or DEAFNESS. Herpes Herpes infects 1 million people a year, and unlike syphilis chlamydia, and gonorrhea, THERE IS NO CURE. 1 in 5 Americans aged 12 and older has herpes. There are actually 8 types of herpes, but only type 1, 2, 8 are sexually transmitted. Both types 1 and 2 cause fever blisters/cold sores, and both types can also be seen on the mouth and on the genitals, even though Type 1 is more common. Many people think that Herpes Type 1 only occurs on the mouth, and that Herpes Type 2 only occurs on the genitals. This is not true. Both types are transferable- Herpes Type 1 can be found on the genitals and Herpes Type 2 can be found on the mouth.

A person with herpes can even transfer it by touch to other areas of his or her own body, including the eyes (this is called autoinnoculation). From now on we will call any blisters on the mouth oral herpes, and any blisters on the genitals, genital herpes, but both can be caused by type 1 and type 2. The herpes virus is highly contagious and it can easily be spread by a quick kiss, so do not assume that just because somebody has a cold sore that they have been involved in sexual activity. Stage One: Prodromal Stage

The person, 2-20 days after coming in contact with the virus, will feel a burning or itching on the surface where they came in contact with the virus. Occasionally, people with genital herpes will experience pain running down their buttocks and thighs. These first signs mean that the virus is replicating/shedding and is attaching itself to cells in the body. All intimate contact with the infected area should be avoided at this time. This signals the start of the primary attack, which can last an average of 6 days. Stage Two: Vesicle stage. This can last 2-3 weeks. This stage is marked by the blisters popping and oozing ulcer-like sores. Stage Three: Crusting Over Stage. In this stage the sores begin to develop scales and form scabs. The lesions eventually heal without scarring. The virus is still being shed (reproducing) so intimate contact should be avoided.
Within a few hours of infection the skin surface will break into a rash, and then a while later fluid filled blisters will appear, these can be painful. For people with genital herpes Urinating can be VERY PAINFUL, in addition to walking or sitting.

The person also often has flu like symptoms, muscle pains and aches, headache, fever. At the end of this stage, the primary attack is over. However, a person can have more than one primary attack, especially if they come in contact with more than one type of herpes. A person who already has herpes should not assume that it is safe to have sex with another person who has herpes, because they could catch another strain of the virus. About one third of people will never have another attack because the virus will go dormant. Another third will have recurrent attacks, and the final third will only have occasional attacks- such as when they are stressed. * It is important to note that not everyone has symptoms, and not everyone has symptoms that are recognizable. In fact 75-90% of people with genital herpes don't realize that they have it. This is either because they don't know they have symptoms or because they don't recognize that the symptoms they have are herpes. Complications: Since herpes blisters can appear on any part of the body, the virus can spread to parts of the body where you wouldn't normally think it would be. Once example is if the virus spreads to the eyes.

This can happen by touching blisters and then rubbing the eyes, or using saliva to insert contact lenses. This is the leading cause of blindness by infection in the U.S.

Herpes can also spread to the brain where it can cause deadly encephalitis or meningitis. Complications during pregnancy: If a female has a primary attack during pregnancy it is usually more severe and can cause a great risk, particularly to the baby. The virus can cause a higher than normal rate of premature births, spontaneous abortions, and abnormalities.

Furthermore, if a female has an active case of herpes while she is pregnant there is a around a 50% chance that it can be passed to the baby. Many babies who get herpes at birth will suffer severe neurological problems. Eye infections, skin eruptions, and damage to internal organs can also occur. Treatment:
THERE IS NO CURE FOR HERPES. Once you have been infected you will always have it. However, there are several medications that can be taken that will relieve symptoms and speed up recovery.

If you suspect you have herpes, then you need to get tested. If you know you have herpes then it is important to avoid stress, wash your hands regularly to avoid autoinnoculation, and avoid wearing nylon or tight fighting underwear.

Also, because herpes can live for a little while do not share items such as towels or toothbrushes, and avoid contact with the area, and as always use condoms if you are going to have sex!! Hepatitis Hepatitis in an inflammation of the liver. There are three different types. Hepatitis A is caused by direct or indirect oral contact with contaminated feces. It can be spread sexually by contact of the anus of an infected person during sex. However, it is usually contracted through nonsexual means, such as food handled by infected individuals, or shell fish taken from contaminated waters. Hepatitis B is transmitted by infected blood or body fluids (saliva, semen, vaginal secretions). It can cause liver cancer and cirrhosis. People most often acquire HBV though sex, but it also can be passed via blood transfusion, sharing needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy. Hepatitis C is most commonly spread through blood to blood contact. This usually occurs in cases where people are sharing needles during intravenous drug use, but in about 20% of cases it can be passed through sexual contact. There is no vaccine, and around 300 million people are infected world wide. Some people can go 10-20 years without showing any symptoms. 1/5 of people who are infected will develop cirrhosis of the liver and/or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is responsible for about 8,000 to 10,000 deaths per year in the U.S. * Unlike love, herpes is forever. Symptoms: symptoms of hepatitis can range from mild ( poor appetite, diarrhea) to severe (fever; vomiting; pain; fatigue; jaundiced (yellow) skin and eyes: dark urine. HPV HPV is passed on through skin to skin contact, usually during vaginal and anal sex, but sometimes during oral sex. The virus is able to penetrate the skin and mucosal surfaces through microscopic tears in the genital area, which occur during sexual activity. HPV can be passed even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms. A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV.

Very rarely, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her baby during delivery. In these cases, the child can develop a rare condition in which warts grow in the throat. About half of women infected do not know they have HPV, but they can still be carriers for the disease. Genital Warts: If you become infected with genital warts, the first symptoms typically take from 3 weeks to 8 months after contact to start to appear. The average is 3 months. The warts are usually painless, but can cause itching irritation or bleeding.

In men, the warts generally appear on the penis, scrotum, and/or anus, but they can also grow in the urethra. In women the warts can appear on the cervix, and walls of the vagina, as well as the vulva and anus.

Women are more likely than men to develop warts. Genital warts have a number of different appearances, from reddish plaques, to common and plantar looking wars, to flat warts. Additionally, women may experience bleeding during sex, and/or unusual discharge There are about 25 different types of HPV that can cause genital warts, but the majority are caused by HPV 6 and 11.
There are no symptoms of High Risk HPV. Usually the only way that women find out that they have High Risk HPV is when they get a Pap Test, and it shows abnormalities, which eventually leads to HPV testing. That is why until the age of 30 it is important for females to have a gynecological exam yearly, in order to detect High Risk HPV that may cause cervical cancer.

In fact, nearly all women with cervical cancer are found to have HPV infections. So far, it has been determined that HPV 31, 33, 45, 18, and 16 are known to cause cervical cancer. Note that these types are different than the genital wart causing HPVs. That means that most women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer will have NO VISIBLE SYMPTOMS, and possibly not even know they have HPV until their cancer diagnosis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV stands for human papillomavirus. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Some types produce warts — plantar warts on the feet and common hand warts. About 40 types of HPV can infect the genital area — the vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum. It is the most common STI. If you suspect you have genital warts then it is important to get tested. If the warts are not treated you will not only be passing the virus to others, but the warts will also get worse. HPV is a complicated STD because it is possible to contract genital warts even if you use a condom. (I.E. - your partner is infected in an area that is not covered by a condom). However, condom use is still very important because it will prevent you from getting HPV if your partner has genital warts either on the shaft or the end of the penis, or in the vagina or cervix. In addition, using a condom will prevent you from either passing or receiving the non-genital wart types of HPV, that are known to cause cancer. Truth: It all relates to the hymen. * About 20 million Americans ages 15-49 have HPV. Additionally, there is now a vaccine for HPV, however the vaccine does not guard against all types of HPV. It inoculates you against the main types of HPV that cause cancer, and genital warts, but not all. Therefore, preventing HPV is and its affects is limited to:
1). Keeping the amount of sexual partners you have low, and 2). Only engaging is sexual activity with partners who have a low amount of sexual partners.
3). If you are sexually active female get a yearly Pap test until the age of 30. (There is no test for High Risk HPV for males)
4). Wear a condom, and
5). Avoid sexual contact when warts are visible. Symptoms: Symptoms: STDs * Love is temporary, but herpes is FOREVER. Fallopian Tubes: STAGE TWO: STAGE ONE: STAGE THREE: STAGE FOUR: HIV/AIDS:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system. While HIV was once thought of as a disease that primarily attacked homosexual males, it is now a disease that is known to affect men, women, and all sexual orientations. Globally, 85% of HIV transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. Worldwide, 42% of people with HIV are women. In Montana there are 530 people with HIV. 1.1 million Americans have been diagnosed with HIV.

*Worldwide 70 MILLION PEOPLE WILL DIE FROM AIDS IN THE NEXT 20 YEARS. It will be the biggest natural disaster in human history. HIV is transmitted when the virus enters the body, usually by blood, body fluids (vaginal fluids, or semen, others), and breast milk. There are several possible ways in which the virus can enter. HIV/AIDS What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? Many people with HIV do not know they are infected. In the United States, it is likely that 20% of HIV-positive individuals are unaware of their infection.

Many people do not develop symptoms after they first get infected with HIV. Others have a history of a flu-like illness within several days to weeks after exposure to the virus. Early HIV symptoms also include fever, headache, tiredness, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. These symptoms usually disappear on their own within a few weeks. After that, the person feels normal and has no symptoms. This asymptomatic phase often lasts for years. Even though the person has no symptoms, he or she is contagious and can pass HIV to others. The infections that happen with AIDS are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the opportunity to infect a weakened host. The infections include (but are not limited to): pneumonia, brain infection with toxoplasmosis; widespread infection with a bacteria called MAC (mycobacterium avium complex); yeast infection of the (esophagus) which causes pain with swallowing; widespread diseases with certain fungi like histoplasmosis.

A weakened immune system can also lead to other unusual conditions:
lymphoma in the brain; a cancer of the soft tissues called Kaposi's sarcoma, which causes brown, reddish, or purple spots that develop on the skin or in the mouth.
During this period, even though a person may have no symptoms the virus continues to multiply
and infects and kills the cells of the immune system. The virus destroys the cells that are the
primary infection fighters, a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells. AIDS is the later stage of
HIV infection, when the body begins losing its ability to fight infections. Once the CD4 cell count
falls low enough, an infected person is said to have AIDS. If you have engaged in unprotected sex outside of a mutually monogamous relationship or shared needles while using drugs, you should have an HIV test. Early detection and treatment of the infection can slow the growth of HIV.

Today there are many free tests available. You be required to take a screening test, where they will test for antibodies. Depending on the who you take the test from your results could take anywhere from 1-3 days (Blood), or 20 minutes (Urine, Saliva, other fluids). However, because HIV takes a while (6 weeks to 3 months) to show up in people's systems, a second test 3 months later (testing window period) is required after the initial test if it is negative. After the initial screening test has been provided, if a person comes up positive then a person's provider will perform a blood test (Western Blot) is done to confirm. If you have been diagnosed with HIV it is important to seek medical help right away. Medical care and treatment can help lengthen a person's life. As of now about 5% of people will develop full blown AIDS within the first 3 years of infection. 20% will develop it within the first 5 years. and 50% within 10. Only 12% of infected people will not yet have been diagnosed with AIDS after 20 years. •HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. After getting into the body, the virus kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The body tries to keep up by making new cells or trying to contain the virus, but eventually the HIV wins out and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.

•AIDS stands for the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. It is caused by HIV and occurs when the virus has destroyed so much of the body's defenses that immune-cell counts fall to critical levels and certain life-threatening infections or cancers develop. Eventually it is the infections and opportunistic diseases that will kill you. * Important: Because HIV can take 3 months to show up in your system it is necessary to take precautions with your partner(s) for at least the first 60 days after you think you became infected. Especially since during this time period your viral load will be very high, and it is easier to infect others. The main way to prevent HIV infection is to wear a condom EVERY TIME you have sex, but even that is not foolproof. Condom use is not 100% effective, in fact it probably protects you about 98% of the time. The only sure way to prevent from getting HIV is to abstain from sex. However, there are some ways to make it Safer Sex. 1). ONLY BUY LATEX CONDOMS. Condoms made out of lambskin, while effective for pregnancy, have microscopic holes which may allow some of the virus to pass through. If you are allergic to latex, use polyurethane condoms. 2). STORE CONDOMS PROPERLY. Condoms should be kept in a cool dry place and not exposed to heat or direct sunlight. DO NOT KEEP CONDOMS IN YOUR WALLET OR GLOVE BOX. The heat in these places can destroy the materials condoms are made from. 3). WEAR CONDOMS CORRECTLY. To prevent damage and tearing, don’t use fingernails, teeth, or other sharp objects to open condom packages. * Put a condom on BEFORE any oral, vaginal, or anal contact occurs.

* Make sure the penis is fully erect before putting the condom on. Use a dental dam or other prophylactic even if you are engaging in oral sex.

* Leave space at the tip, and squeeze the tip of the condom to get rid of the air (doing so may help prevent from condom breakage and slippage.)

After EACH sex act, use a new condom. NEVER REUSE CONDOMS. 4).. CHOOSE LUBRICANTS WISELY.

Opt for water-based lubricants only, which include K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, and other products made with glycerin.
*Never use oil-based lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, mineral oil, massage oils, lotions, or cooking oils, which can damage condoms.

Unless adequate lubrication is clearly present, always use a water-based lubricant with condoms during vaginal and anal sexual intercourse.

* Do not use lubricants with the spermicide nonoxyl-9 if you are worried about HIV prevention. The spermicide can irritate the skin causing microscopic tears, which can actually make it easier for HIV to infect the body. •Most commonly, HIV infection is spread by having sex with an infected partner.

The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth during sex.

Anal sex seems to be the easiest way to transmit HIV, followed by vaginal intercourse and then there is a slim chance it can be contracted through oral sex. •HIV frequently spreads among injection-drug users who share needles or syringes that are contaminated with blood from an infected person.

•Women can transmit HIV to their babies during pregnancy or birth, when infected maternal cells enter the baby's circulation, or through breastfeeding.

•HIV can be spread in health-care settings through accidental needle sticks or contact with contaminated fluids. •Very rarely, HIV spreads through transfusion of contaminated blood or blood components. All blood products are tested to minimize this risk. If tissues or organs from an infected person are transplanted, the recipient may acquire HIV. Donors are now tested for HIV to minimize this risk.

•People who already have a sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydial infection, human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to acquire HIV infection during sex with an infected partner. *The virus does not spread through casual contact such as preparing food, sharing towels and bedding, or via swimming pools, telephones, or toilet seats. The virus is also unlikely to be spread by contact with saliva, unless it is contaminated with blood. 5). Remove the condom correctly. Remove the condom while the penis is still erect.
Hold the condom firmly at the base of the penis during removal to prevent slippage of the condom and spilling of semen.

Condoms are only effective when used properly and consistently, during every sexual act. Parasites Pubic Lice AKA Crabs Pubic lice are 1-2 mm long, grayish or dusky red six legged parasites that attach themselves to pubic hair and feed on human blood. They are very slow and transmitted in skin to skin contact. If you has sex with an infected partner, your chances of getting them are 95% The lice cause intense itching. The lice usually do not live for more than 24 hours away from the body, but any eggs that fall off can survive and hatch up to 10 days later. You could, therefore, pick them up from sheets, towels, or clothing.
Normal washing will not get rid of them, you need to use a special shampoo for all areas of the body that have lice. Scabies Scabies is a contagious infection of long pearly white parasitic itch mites. The 8 legged mites burrow under the skin to lay their eggs, resulting in itchy, red, pimple-like bumps when the eggs hatch. After the eggs hatch, the skin will become scaly and patchy if the mites are not immediately destroyed. Secondary bacterial infection is common. The mites are transmitted by close contact. In adults, this usually means sexual contact. But scabies are common in places where people sleep in crowded areas. Usually treatment involves a lotion, or a pill. If you have been diagnosed with scabies, also make sure to wash all your sheets towels and clothing to avoid re-infestation. Pinworms & Amebiasis Pinworms live in the large intestine and are usually gotten through nonsexual contact with eggs. The female pinworms leave the rectum at night and lay their eggs around the anus. The worms are common in children. The worms can be sexually transmitted by manual or oral contact with the anus of an infected person. If you experience itching around the anus area, or see worms in the toilet, consult a medical professional. The most common way to get genital herpes is by having vaginal or anal intercourse with someone who has open herpes sores (direct skin-to-skin contact). However, transmission of the genital herpes virus is also possible through an infected partner who does not have visible sores. Transmission may also occur through oral sex and contact with the mucus membranes. Women (infection site is in cervix/urethra):
An increase or a change in vaginal discharge caused by an inflamed cervix,
The need to urinate more frequently,
Pain or burning while urinating.

Women (infection has spread to fallopian tubes, still possible to not have any symptoms):
Pain during sexual intercourse or bleeding after sex,
lower abdominal or low back pain,
Irregular menstrual bleeding- bleeding between periods.
A chlamydia infection can also spread to the rectum. Men:
A white/cloudy and watery discharge from the penis that may stain underwear,
A burning sensation and/or pain when urinating,
Burning or itching around the opening of the penis,
Pain and swelling in the testicles,
An infection can develop in a man's epididymis (which is the tube that carries sperm) causing pain, fever, and occasionally infertility.

Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.

Men are more likely to notice chlamydia symptoms than women, though they too may be asymptomatic. Healthy uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. **In the moist areas around the genitals the rash appears as large sores which break and ooze highly contagious fluid bacteria.

Other symptoms might include a sore throat, a persistent low grade fever, loss of appetite, aches and pains, and even hair loss. Genital HPV infections are very common. HPV is so common that about half of all men and more than 3 out of 4 women have HPV at some point in their lives. But most people who have HPV don't know it.That is because many people who contract HPV, show no symptoms, and then eventually will test negative (as in the virus will eventually be killed off by the immune system).

However, this does not mean that they are not passing the infection to others during this time. The virus can even lay dormant in the system for years before it finally flares up.
Most HPV infections have no harmful effect at all. But there are two types that have harmful effects; low risk, and high risk HPV.
* Genital warts are considered Low Risk HPV.
* High Risk HPV can cause cell changes that sometimes lead to CERVICAL CANCER and certain other genital and throat cancers. Vaginitis Vaginitis- refers to any inflammation of the vagina. Trichomoniasis- usually contacted by sexual contact. There will be three million NEW cases of "Trick" this year, which is more than gonorrhea, syphilis, and genital herpes COMBINED. Trichomoniasis is caused by a one-cell protozoan that lives in the vagina and urethra. Symptoms: Symptoms usually appear 4 days to 1 month after infection. Symptoms include a lot of foamy, yellowish-green discharge with a foul odor combined with a severe vaginal itching, and soreness of the genitals. About half of women will experience no symptoms.

Most men will be asymptomatic carriers, but men that do have symptoms may experience urethral itching or irritation and possible discharge.

Trick can make sex unpleasant. How is it passed?

Trich is usually passed sexually. * BE CAREFUL! Trich can survive in urine and tap water for hours or even days, so it is possible to pick it up by using a wet toilet seat or sharing towels. Treatment: If left untreated Trich can lead to infertility and premature labor, and helps facilitate the transmission of HIV from an infected partner. Also, if left untreated, Trich can last for years!!! If you think you have trich it is important that you and your partner get tested (your doctor will examine the discharge and grow a culture of the parasite). If you have trich and both people are not treated you and your partner will just continue to reinfect each other. Trich can be treated with antibiotics. Moniliasis- This refers to a fungus or yeast infection that is very common in women. It can be passed sexually, but most often it is just an overgrowth of yeast/fungus. 3/4 of women will experience it at least once in their lifetimes. Symptoms include: thick white cheesy discharge and intense itching. Causes: Yeast infections can be passed sexually, but most are not, and are caused by hormone changes, use of antibiotics, diabetes, overly zealous hygiene and the use of perfumed feminine hygiene products. Cystitis/ Prostatitis - Cystitis is a bacterial infection of the bladder. It is especially common in sexually active young women and is strongly associated with recent intercourse, especially after using a diaphragm with spermicide. It is commonly found in women who have suddenly increased their sexual activity and who are engaging in "vigorous intercourse". Cystitis can also be transmitted from the rectum to the urethral opening by wiping from front to back. * * * Prostatis- E. Coli bacteria can also be transmitted to a man's prostate during sexual activity. Symptoms may include lower back and/or groin pain, fever, and burning during ejaculation. Symptoms: Frequent urge to urinate, painful urination, and lower abdominal pains. Protect Yourself Before You Wreck Yourself There is no such thing as "Safe Sex", there is only "Safer Sex". The only way to be 100% sure you will not get an STD is to practice abstinence. There will be about 12 million NEW cases of STDs this year, that's about 33,000 A DAY. Lots of people think, "It won't happen to me." However, statistics show that a large percentage of the sexually active adults will get an STD. Therefore, it is necessary to protect yourself. WAYS TO PROTECT YOURSELF * 2. Restrict your sexual activity to a mutually faithful, LONG-TERM MONOGAMOUS relationship. *1. Use condoms correctly EVERY TIME. * 3. Limit the amount of sexual partners you have. What to do if you think you have an STD? 1. See a doctor immediately. 2. If you have been diagnosed with an STD, do not have sex until you are cured. If there is no cure, use condoms every time. 3. If you have an STD, tell your partner so that they, too, can be treated and not infect others or yourself again. BIRTH CONTROL BIRTH CONTROL FACT: The U.S. has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the industrialized world, and nearly HALF of all pregnancies (of any age) are unintended. Why? It appears there are several different reasons, but one of the main reasons is widespread NON-USE of contraception. One third of American teens use NO CONTRACEPTION at first intercourse. Even after their first intercourse, only one third of teens will use contraception on a regular basis. Remember, using contraception not only prevents pregnancy, but can stop the spread of many damaging, and sometimes life-threatening sexually transmitted diseases. When it comes to becoming pregnant and getting STD's many people have a "It won't happen to me." attitude. However, statistics do not agree with this mentality. For couples who practice unprotected sexual intercourse, using no contraception, 85-90% will become pregnant within 1 year. Also, about half of all Americans will acquire some sort of STI in their lifetime. The following information is intended to be used to prevent pregnancy and possibly the spread of STD's. Perfect use pregnancy rate- Percentage of couples that will conceive who are using the technique consistently and properly. Typical use pregnancy rate- Percentage of couples who will become pregnant if they use
the technique, but sometimes do not use it properly or consistently. The goal (obviously) is to be as close to 0% as possible. However, over time, the risk of pregnancy for any method will increase. For example, a technique that has a first year pregnancy rate of 5%, has a 10 year pregnancy of 23%. Pregnancy/Birth Control Statements * Drinking Mountain Dew/Surge before sex will lower sperm count, making it harder to get pregnant. A woman who douches with Coca Cola cannot get pregnant. * * You can't get pregnant the first time you have sex. * You can't get pregnant if you kiss. * A woman can't get pregnant if she is on top or standing up. * A female has to have an orgasm in order to get preggers. ...Pregnancy edition Things to consider when picking B.C. Ineffective Methods of B.C. Ineffective Methods of Birth Control * Withdrawal * Withdrawal method is where a man withdraws his penis just before reaching orgasm and ejaculates outside his partner's vagina. Why It Doesn't Work: The main reason this method has a high rate of failure is that even if a man pulls out before he ejaculates, there is often fluid released from the Cowper's gland before a man ejaculates. This fluid (called pre-ejaculate) can contain sperm. For couples only using withdrawal method, 20 out of 100 will become pregnant within a year. Additionally if a man ejaculates on or near his partner's vaginal opening, it is possible that some sperm can get into the vaginal secretions and make their way into the vagina. Douching? Some people believe that if you wash out your vagina or go to the bathroom right after sex, that you get rid of the sperm and won't get pregnant. Why It Doesn't Work: The problem with this is that it doesn't matter how fast you douche after intercourse, some of the sperm will have already made it to your cervix. In fact, the pressure caused by douching can actually force sperm into the cervical opening!!!
Over 40/100 couples who use douching will conceive in 1 year's time. Additionally, frequent douching can increase the likelihood of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. Female Male Reproductive System Fallopian Tubes Cervix Signs of Virginity Urethra: The passage used for urine to leave the body. In females the urethra, vagina, and anus are all separate. Does your penis have a bone in it? How long is a period? PMS? Can you BREAK your penis?!! Can you break your testicles? Menstrual Cycle Male Male cancers? Symptoms: What's it look like? Rx (Treatment) Symptoms: What's it look like? RX Symptoms: What's it look like? Rx Symptoms: What's it look like? Rx How is it spread? Symptoms: (low risk) What does it look like? High Risk HPV Rx How is it passed? How is it spread? Symptoms: Testing: Prevention Tips for condom use How to protect yourself against STD's. vs. answer: All of these statements are
FALSE! Who tells you guys this stuff? SPERM ROAD TRIP Birth Control Barrier Methods Condoms are worn on the penis during sex. They are made of thin latex, lamb skin, or plastic that has been molded into the shape of a penis. They prevent pregnancy and reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

Condoms are available in different styles and colors, and are available dry, lubricated, and with spermicide. How Do Condoms Work? Condoms prevent pregnancy by collecting pre-ejaculate and semen when a man ejaculates. This keeps sperm from entering the vagina. Pregnancy cannot happen if sperm cannot join with an egg.

By covering the penis, serving as a barrier between membranes, and keeping semen out of the vagina, anus, or mouth, condoms also highly effective at preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Condoms These work by placing a barrier between the penis and the cervix so that the sperm cannot reach the egg and fertilize it. How Effective Are Condoms?
Like all birth control methods, condoms are more effective when you use them correctly.

Each year, the perfect use rate is 2%

Each year, the actual use rate 13-16 %

You can make condoms more effective if you use spermicide with them, in fact this lowers the chance of pregnancy to about 1%. How to use a condom 2. Push the condom to the edge of the package and tear off a corner. Be careful not to break or tear the condom. 5. Hold on to the base of the condom when you are finished and withdraw. Otherwise, you might leave it and its contents in the woman's vagina. Use a condom only once. If you have intercourse more than one time while having sex, use a new condom each time. Some people say you can wash and dry them, powder them with corn starch, and roll them up for reuse, but these people are WRONG and doing so puts you at risk. 1. Check the expiration date. Do not store rubber condoms in warm places (such as your wallet or pockets) for long periods of time or where they are exposed to light.
This will eventually disintegrate them. Store them somewhere cool, dark, and dry. * Do not use latex condoms in combination with hand lotions, baby oil, Vaseline, mineral oil, vegetable oil, or other petroleum jellies. This can destroy the condom.

A man should never begin intercourse until his partner is lubricated, but if additional lubricant is needed, use a water-based one like K-Y Jelly, Astroglide (silicone based), or Today Personal Lubricant. If you are primarily concerned with stopping pregnancy, then using a spermicide is a good choice (polyurethane condom cam be used with an oil-based lubricant). Lines people hear about not using condoms 1. I promise I will not come in you. 2. I will pull out. 3. It doesn't feel the same. 4. I can't feel anything with it on. 5. I don't have a disease. 6. If you're not having sex with anybody else, why should I use it? If you trust me, you wouldn't make me use it. Good responses for these lines. 1. No condom, no sex. No glove, no love. 2. If you choose not to have a condom, you're choosing not to have sex with me. 3. It's not that I don't trust you, it's that I don't trust who've you've been with. 4. There will be no action in the ballpark until the player with the bat puts his glove on. * How to use a condom FEMALE CONDOMS * Latex condoms are probably the best bet if you are concerned about STDS. If you choose skin condoms, even though they are stronger and are very effective for contraception, they have small pores that may allow the passage of Hep. B and HIV. The female condom is relatively new. It is a pouch that is inserted into the vagina and held in place by 2 rings. A woman inserts it with her fingers by pushing the closed-ended ring against the cervix. It is held in place by the open outer ring, which fits on the outside of the vagina, and partially covers the labia. The female condom can also be used for anal intercourse. For people who use the female condom, the pregnancy rate is about 5%. The female condom also protects against STD, and is a good alternative to the male condom. Diaphragm The diaphragm is a large, dome shaped rubber cup with a rim that fits over the cervix.
During vaginal intercourse, it is normal for the female condom to move side to side. Stop intercourse if the penis slips between the condom and the walls of the vagina or if the outer ring is pushed into the vagina.

As long as your partner has not yet ejaculated, you can gently remove the condom from the vagina, add extra spermicide or lubricant, and insert it once again.

To remove the female condom:

Squeeze and twist the outer ring to keep semen inside the pouch.
Gently pull it out.
Throw it away. Do not reuse the female condom.
To insert the female condom.

Put spermicide or lubricant on the outside of the closed end.

Squeeze together the sides of the inner ring at the closed end of the condom and insert it into the vagina like a tampon.
Push the inner ring into the vagina as far as it can go until it reaches the cervix.
Let the outer ring hang about an inch outside the vagina. It protects you from pregnancy by preventing sperm from entering the cervix, It will not protect you from STDs. You need to see a healthcare provider in order to be fitted for a diaphragm, you cannot borrow someone else's, and they are not available over the counter. You also have to be refitted if your body undergoes any changes (weight changes over 10 pounds, pregnancy.) Diaphragms should be used with spermicide.The spermicide should be spread on the inside part of the diaphragm and rim before insertion. Also, each time you have sex more spermicide should be applied. A diaphragm can be inserted up to two hours before sex, and it should be left in place for 6 hours after. If you have sex again then you need to apply more spermicide. Perfect use: 6/100

Actual Use: 12/100 Cervicle Cap The cervical cap is very similar to a diaprhagm, but smaller and can be held in place for up to 24 hours. A small amount of spermicide should be applied. The cervicle cap works by acting as a barrier between the cervix and sperm. It should not be used by women who have abnormal Pap smears, women who have any kind of cuts or tears in their vaginal or cervical tissue, or by women who are menestruating. For women who have had been given birth vaginally, the chance of pregnancy is 29/100. For women who have not been pregnant or given birth vaginally the chance of becoming pregnant is 14/100. The Sponge The sponge is another barrier method. It is small, soft, 2 inches in diameterm and contains spermicide. It works by blocking the cervix and releasing spermicide to kill the sperm. It does not have to be fitted to you and is available over the counter. The sponge, is a very popular type of contraception for several reasons. One; it is available over the counter and does not require an exam. Two; it is easy to insert. Three; it is thrown away after use. Four; it usually cannot be felt by your partner. Five; it can be worn for up to 30 hours before sex, and does not need to be removed if you have sex multiple times in the first 24 hours. Cons of using the sponge:
Does not protect you againt STDs.
It may be difficult for some women to insert or remove the sponge. If you cannot remove a sponge, or if one breaks into pieces and you cannot remove all of the pieces, see your health care provider immediately to have the sponge removed.

It may cause vaginal irritation. It may make sex too messy or too dry. Some women complain that the sponge is messy because it requires too much liquid. Others have complained the sponge makes sex too dry. Using a water-based lubricant may help dryness. The sponge is more effective for women who have never given birth.

If women who have never given birth have perfect use, 9 out of 100 will become pregnant each year.
If women who have never given birth have actual use, 12 out of 100 will become pregnant each year.
Women who have previously given birth have a higher risk of pregnancy. If women who have given birth have perfect use, 20 out of 100 women will become pregnant each year.
If women who have given birth have actual use, 24 out of 100 will become pregnant each year. IUD The letters IUD stand for "intrauterine device." IUDs are small, "T-shaped" devices made of flexible plastic. A health care provider inserts an IUD into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.

There are two brands of IUD available in the United States ParaGard and Mirena. They can work for up to 12 years. How Does an IUD Work?

Both the ParaGard and the Mirena IUDs work mainly by affecting the way sperm move so they can't join with an egg. Both the copper (Paragaud) and progestin (Mirena) types of IUD's secrete natural spermicides.

The Mirena type of IUD secretes progestin, which also prevents pregnancy by thickening a woman's cervical mucus, this mucus blocks sperm and keeps it from joining with an egg. In some women, it may even prevent the egg from leaving the ovary. Advantages of an IUD:
One of the most effective forms of reversible birth control,
Can be used while breastfeeding,
Works immediately upon insertion
Nothing to do right before sex to ensure effectiveness
Fertility returns quickly upon removal
Lasts for 10 to 12 years
Can be used for emergency contraception
Does not interact with any medications Disadvantages:
Periods can get heavier and longer,
Worsenning menstrual camps,
Irregular periods or spotting between periods.

* IUD's should not be used if:
You have had a pelvic infection following either childbirth or an abortion in the past three months, and have or may have a sexually transmitted infection or other pelvic infection. Perfect Use Rate of Copper: .08%
Perfect Use Rate of Progesterone: 2%

Actual Use of Copper: .6%
Actual Use of Progesterone: 1.5% Hormonal Methods It's pretty common for people to be confused about how birth control pills work. Here’s what it boils down to, birth control pills are made of hormones. Hormones are chemicals made in our bodies, they control how different parts of our bodies work. The hormones in birth control basically mimic the hormones our bodies already have. The outcome taking these synthetic hormones are that cervical mucus becomes thicker, and eggs are NOT released from the ovaries, therefore preventing conception/pregnancy. Let's look at what the female menstrual cycle normally does.
In the female cycle the first change that occurs is that the pituitary gland sends out FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) which triggers follicles (immature eggs) to grow. The follicles then release the hormone ESTROGEN, which sets off a chain reaction. The ESTROGEN triggers the pituitary gland to release GONADOTROPIN (GnRH), which triggers a rise in LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH). LH does three things 1). It causes the endometrium to build, 2). It causes a thinning of vaginal mucus, and 3). It causes a dominant egg to be released from the ovary. After the egg is released from the ovary it is either fetilized or it dissolves. So.... how does "The Pill" work?
The pill works by releasing progestin and usually also estrogen. These homones cause a decrease in the release of GnRH which causes a DECREASE in the release of FSH and LH. Usually this decrease prevents an egg from being released, and causes an increase in the thickenning of vaginal mucus. * Basically, the pill works by tricking your body into thinking it has already released an egg. * The Pill and Drug Interactions
Unfortunately, the pill doesn't always work well with some common drugs and supplements. These include St. John's wort, certain types of steroids, anti-seizure medications, some anti-anxiety drugs like Valium, and antibiotics. Most of these drugs interact with the estrogen in combination pills and can make the pill less effective. Most doctors recommend using a backup method of birth control while taking antibiotics, as well as for a week afterward. The Pill has a perfect use rate of less than 1% However, its typical use rate is closer to 9% Why? BECAUSE PEOPLE FORGET TO TAKE THE PILL!!! Remember, if you are on the pill there is only one rule: Take it at the same time EVERYDAY! Not doing so puts you at risk for pregnancy. If you forgot a pill, a back up method of birth control is necessary. Birth Control Pill Side Effects
In addition to preventing pregnancy, the pill can have all sorts of side effects -- some negative, some positive. The most common side effect of the pill is breakthrough bleeding or spotting, which is when a woman bleeds in the weeks she's taking active pills. This is due to the changes in hormone levels. Most women's bodies adjust after a few months of being on the pill. Health Risks
Some health risks include:
blood clots
heart attack
high blood pressure
liver tumors

* However, these are most prevalent in women over 35, overweight, and smoke. Health Benefits

Decreased risk of cancer of the endometrium and ovaries
Decrease in the number of Breast tumors
Decrease in rates of ovarian cysts
Reduction in PMS and PMS symptoms
Reduction in rates of rheumatoid arthritis and PID Types of B.C. Pills Combination pills- These are your regular 28 day cycle pills. They use synthetic estrogen and progesterone to lower the levels of hormones released. 21 days of pills containing hormones are taken, and then 7 days of placebo pills. There are many different types of combination pills with varying doses, so choose the kind that is right for you. Other common side effects include:

breast soreness
decreased libido?
weight gain? Minipill- Basically like a regular birth control pill, except that it contains only estrogen. The minipill works by inhibiting the development of the endometrium and keeping cervical mucus thick. Women who have trouble with the side effects of the estrogen containing pill, or who are breast feeding are good candidates for the minipill. Caution: If you don't take them at the same time everyday, they may not work. Being as little as 3 hours late can start ovulation. Extended Cycle Pills- Like B.C. pills except you will have fewer or possibly no periods. Examples are: Seasonique, Seasonale, etc. BIRTH CONTROL PILLS THE SHOT If daily pills are not a good option, then there are other hormone based options. One of these is the Depo-Provera (DMPA) shot. Depo-Provera is an injectable contraceptive that is good for 12 weeks. It works by preventing release of eggs (blocking LH and FSH), and thickenning cervical mucus. It is effective immediately if taken withing the first 7 days of your period. Its perfect use rate is less than 1%, and its typical use is 6%. The side effects most often seen are:
Irregular bleeding, especially in the first 6-12 months of use.
Lighter periods, and then possibly no periods after 1 year.
Longer, heavier periods.

Less common side effects are:
change in sex drive
change in appetite or weight gain
hair loss or increased hair on the face or body headache
sore breasts
can increase bone fragility THE IMPLANT The birth control implant is a thin, flexible plastic implant about the size of a cardboard matchstick. It is inserted under the skin of the upper arm. It protects against pregnancy for up to three years. The implant is available under the brand names Implanon and Nexplanon. THE RING For people who want to take a hormone based contraception, but who choose not to take the pill, the vaginal ring is another option they can pursue. The vaginal ring is a small, flexible ring a woman inserts into her vagina once a month to prevent pregnancy. It is left in place for three weeks and taken out for the remaining week each month. The vaginal ring is commonly called NuvaRing, its brand name. Nuvaring uses the same hormones as the BC pill, estrogen and progestin. It prevents pregnancy by thickenning cervicle mucus and keeping eggs from leaving the ovaries. The perfect use rate is less than 1% per year, and the typical use rate is 9% Similar to birth control pills, certain medications can decrease Nuvaring's effectiveness. They are:
The antibiotic rifampin -other antibiotics do not make the ring less effective
Certain medicines that are taken by mouth for yeast infections
Certain HIV medicines
Certain anti-seizure medicines
St. John's wort Some of the most common side effects usually clear up after two or three months. They include

Bleeding between periods
Breast tenderness
Nausea and vomiting
NuvaRing may also cause more long-lasting side effects. It may cause increased vaginal discharge, vaginal irritation, or infection. The hormones in NuvaRing may change a woman’s sexual desire. Women who use birth control with estrogen — like NuvaRing —have a slightly greater chance of certain serious problems than nonusers. The most serious — in very rare cases — may be fatal. These include heart attack, stroke, or having a blood clot in the legs, lungs, heart, or brain.

Other rare risks include developing high blood pressure, liver tumors, gallstones, or yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice). The risk for these problems increases if you

are age 35 or older
are very overweight
have certain inherited blood-clotting disorders
have diabetes
have high blood pressure
have high cholesterol
need prolonged bed rest
smoke THE PATCH The birth control patch is a thin, beige, plastic patch that sticks to the skin. It is used to prevent pregnancy. A new patch is placed on the skin once a week for three weeks in a row, followed by a patch-free week. The birth control patch is commonly called Ortho Evra, its brand name. The hormones in the patch are the same hormones as in the birth control pill, estrogen and progestin.The hormones in the birth control patch work by keeping eggs from leaving the ovaries and making cervical mucus thicker. Some women may have undesirable side effects while using Ortho Evra. But many women adjust to it with few or no problems.

Some of the most common side effects usually clear up after two or three months. They include:

Bleeding between periods
Breast tenderness
Nausea and vomiting
Ortho Evra may also cause more long-lasting side effects. The hormones in the patch may change a woman’s sexual desire. A woman may also have a reaction or irritation where she puts the patch on her skin. Women who use birth control with estrogen — like Ortho Evra — have a slightly greater chance of certain rare, but serious, problems than nonusers. The most serious — in very rare cases — may be fatal. These include heart attack, stroke, having a blood clot in the legs, lungs, heart, or brain. Studies have found that women using the patch may have a higher risk of getting blood clots than women taking most kinds of birth control pills. But a woman’s overall risk of any major problem while using the patch is low.

Other rare risks include developing high blood pressure, liver tumors, gallstones, or yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice).
The risk for these problems increases if you

are age 35 or older
are very overweight
have certain inherited blood-clotting disorders
have diabetes
have high blood pressure
have high cholesterol
need prolonged bed rest Less than 1 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they always use Ortho Evra as directed.
About 9 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they don’t always use Ortho Evra as directed.

The patch may be less effective for women who weigh more than 198 pounds. Like several other methods of birth control, such as the birth control shot, the birth control implant releases a hormone — progestin. The birth control implant is very effective. Less than 1 out of 100 women a year will become pregnant using the implant. It lasts up to three years.

Certain medicines and supplements may make the birth control implant less effective. These include

certain TB medicines
certain medicines that are taken by mouth for yeast infections
certain HIV medicines
certain anti-seizure medicines
certain mental disorder medicines
herbals like St. John's wort
Keep in mind Implanon doesn't protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Use a latex or female condom to reduce the risk of infection. Some women may have undesirable side effects while using the birth control implant. But many women adjust to it with few or no problems.

The implant cannot be used by women who have breast cancer.

Irregular bleeding is the most common side effect, especially in the first 6–12 months of use.

For most women, periods become fewer and lighter. After one year, 1 out of 3 women who use the birth control implant will stop having periods completely.
Some women have longer, heavier periods.
Some women have increased spotting and light bleeding between periods.
These side effects are completely normal. Some woman may worry that they are pregnant if they do not have a regular period.

Less common side effects of Implanon include

change in sex drive
discoloring or scarring of the skin over the implant
rarely, an infection or pain in the arm
pain at the insertion site
sore breasts
weight gain Emergency contraception is a safe and effective way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Emergency Contraception can stop a pregnancy before it starts. It works up to five days, or 120 hours, after unprotected sex, but take it sooner rather than later to reduce the possibility of getting pregnant. There are two kinds of emergency contraception:

A pill- commonly called the morning-after pill (available over the counter if you are over 17) or
ParaGard IUD insertion
Both kinds of emergency contraception can be used up to five days (120 hours) after unprotected intercourse.

You may want to use it if

The condom broke or slipped off, and he ejaculated in your vagina.
You forgot to take your birth control pills, insert your ring, or apply your patch.
Your diaphragm or cap slipped out of place, and he ejaculated inside your vagina.
You miscalculated your "safe" days.
He didn't pull out in time.
You weren't using any birth control.
You were forced to have unprotected vaginal sex. Emergency contraception pills work like other birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. They work primarily by stopping the release of an egg from the ovary. It may prevent a sperm from fertilizing the egg.

If fertilization does occur, EC pills may prevent a fertilized egg from attaching to the womb. If a fertilized egg is implanted prior to taking EC pills, it will not work and pregnancy proceeds normally. Side Effects?

The most common side effect is nausea, which occurs in about a quarter of women after taking Plan B. Other side effects include abdominal pain, fatigue, headache, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Emergency Contraception Sterilization Female Sterilization:

During a sterilization procedure, a health care provider closes or blocks a woman's fallopian tubes. Closing the tubes can be done in several ways.
One way is by tying and cutting the tubes this is called tubal ligation. The fallopian tubes also can be sealed using an instrument with an electrical current. They also can be closed with clips, clamps, or rings. Sometimes, a small piece of the tube is removed.

Sometimes, tiny inserts are put in the tubes. Tissue grows around them and blocks the tubes. The brand names for these types of sterilization are Adiana and Essure. Male Sterilization:
Sperm are made in the testicles. They pass through two tubes called the vas deferens to other glands and mix with seminal fluids to form semen. Vasectomy blocks each vas deferens and keeps sperm out of the seminal fluid. The sperm are absorbed by the body instead of being ejaculated. Without sperm, your (ejaculate) cannot cause pregnancy.
One way that women track their fertility patterns is called the calendar method.

Some women also track their fertility patterns when trying to get pregnant to know when they should have unprotected vaginal intercourse.

The Calendar Method
With the calendar method, you need to keep a record of the length of each menstrual cycle in order to determine when you are fertile. You can use an ordinary calendar. Circle day one of each cycle, which is the first day of your period. Count the total number of days in each cycle. Include the first day when you count. Do this for at least eight cycles (12 is better).

Cycle Record
First Day of Period Number of Days in Cycle
Jan. 20 29
Feb. 18 29
Mar. 18 28
Apr. 16 29
May 12 26
June 9 28
July 9 30
Aug. 5 27 To prevent pregnancy, women can keep track of their menstrual cycles and abstain from unprotected vaginal intercourse when they are most likely to become pregnant. The methods you can use to do this are called fertility awareness-based methods (FAMs).

Don't use the calendar method if all your cycles are shorter than 27 days.

Chart Your Calendar Pattern

To predict the first fertile day in your current cycle

Find the shortest cycle in your record.
Subtract 18 from the total number of days.
Count that number of days from day one of your current cycle, and mark that day with an X. Include day one when you count.
The day marked X is your first fertile day.

To predict the last fertile day in your current cycle

Find the longest cycle in your record.
Subtract 11 days from the total number of days.
Count that number of days from day one of your current cycle, and mark that day with an X. Include day one when you count.
The day marked X is the last fertile day.

Here is an example:

Predicting your first fertile day. If your shortest cycle is 26 days long, subtract 18 from 26. That leaves 8. If day one was the fourth day of the month, the day you will mark X will be the 11th. That's the first day you're likely to be fertile. So on that day, you should start abstaining from sex or start using a cervical cap, condom, diaphragm, or female condom.

Predicting your last fertile day. If your longest cycle is 30 days, subtract 11 from 30. That leaves 19. If day one was the fourth day of the month, the day you will mark X will be the 22nd. That's the last day you're likely to be fertile during your current cycle. So you may start to have unprotected vaginal intercourse after that day.

In this example, the 11th through the 22nd are unsafe days. All the others are safe days. There are several methods you can use to predict when you will ovulate.

Temperature Method: You will take your temperature in the morning every day before you get out of bed.

Cervical Mucus Method: You will check the changes in your cervical mucus every day for the first part of your cycle until you are sure you have ovulated.

Calendar Method: You will chart your cycles on a calendar.

It is most effective to combine all three of these methods. Together, they are called the symptothermal method.
Standard Days Method You will track your cycle for several months to be sure that your cycle is always between 26 and 32 days long. Never longer or shorter. Then, you will not have unprotected vaginal intercourse on days 8-19. Fertility Awareness Methods Continue reading if you would like to know more about FAMS. Other Methods
For people who find themselves pregnant unexpectedly, there are only 3 options; go through with the pregnancy and keep the child, carry the pregnancy to term and put the child up for adoption, and abortion.

Since abortion is the only option that can be classified as birth control, we will discuss it here.

Worldwide there are about 50 million abortions performed annually, only about 30 million are performed under safe conditions. at least 13% of all deaths during pregnancy are the result of unsafe abortions.

In the U.S. nearly 90% of women who choose abortion will do so during the first 12 weeks of conception. There is NO 100% effective method of reversible birth control, therefore unwanted pregnancies can occur for people who used even the most reliable forms of birth control. There is always a risk. There are usually several options for women choosing abortion. Here I will describe the top 3. Medical Abortion/RU 486. RU 486 is a pill that can be used to induce abortion up to 8 weeks after a woman's last menstrual period. It is the only nonsurgical procedure. Do NOT confuse RU 486 with the Morning After Pill or Plan B Emergency Contraception. They are not the same thing!

With Medical Abortion, a doctor will give you a pill that will break down the lining of the uterus. A second pill will usually be taken at home. This will cause the uterus to expel and contract. Usually the entire process takes a few days. Dilation and curettage. Under anesthesia a woman's cervix is dilated and the lining of the uterus is then scraped with an instrument called a curette. Aspiration. This is the most common type of abortion. In this procedure your cervix will be dilated and a suction machine will evacuate the cervix. The entire procedure usually takes about 5 minutes. However, dilation usually takes longer. Abortion * Abstinence is the only way to protect yourself 100% from STDs. However, if you choose not to practice abstinence then follow these tips: Sooo.... How do people get pregnant? 85-90% of all fertile couples who are not using protection WILL get pregnant within the first year of intercourse. Why?

Because the human body is basically designed to either get you pregnant or impregnate someone else. What your body is doing while you are busy getting busy. During orgasm a man ejaculates somewhere near 200-300 million sperm into the vagina. Implantation is actually not an easy task. Some sperm will be stopped by gravity, some by the acidity of the female reproductive tract, some by clumping, some by cervical mucus, and some by going into the wrong Fallopian Tube. Only a few thousand will even reach the Fallopian tubes, and then fewer than 50 will actually meet the egg. Only the strong survive. However, once they get there, sperm can live as long as 7 days inside the female genital tract. They are designed to stay for the long haul, and actually need to spend a few hours in the genital tract to undergo capacitation. Meanwhile, on the female side, it is actually impossible to get pregnant unless it is within 24 hours of ovulation. But, there's a catch- It is basically a guess when determining when ovulation is. Ovulation occurs usually mid-way through the female cycle, but since the female cycle can vary so much, most people do not really know when it will occur. Everything you wanted to know about sex, STDs, and birth control.... and then some extra stuff that you probably didn't.

4. If the condom does not have a reservoir tip, leave a little extra space at the tip to catch the ejaculate. If you are uncircumcised, pull back the foreskin while putting on the condom. So, there are basically 8 days in the cycle, that hold the potential for pregnancy. Now back to the sperm... While the sperm are in the female reproductive tract, they undergo a process called capacitation. Which means that their membranes become thin so that an enzyme can be released to soften the eggs outer layers. http://www.health.qld.gov.au/sexhealth/movies/reproductive_cycle.swf As they undergo this process they move up the fallopian tube to meet with the released egg. If the sperm finds an egg the egg will send out tiny projections that pull one sperm to its surface. The sperm leaks out the enzyme and gets into the egg and BAM!!! CONCEPTION. In the same moment a chemical reaction occurs, and this keeps other sperm from entering the egg. Within 24 hours, the sperm and egg from a zygote. The zygote will start to divide cells and begins to move towards the uterus down the fallopian tube. The endometrium has a waiting period of 4-5 days, the zygote, now known as the blastocyst attaches itself to the endometrium. If it cannot, the endometrium sheds and a woman's period starts. 3. Roll condom on BEFORE you start having sex or intimate contact.
Unroll it on the penis; do not try to pull it on like a sock. Each of these tubes in 1-3 feet in length, and if they were laid together end to end they would measure over 1/4 mile in length. Human Reproductive Anatomy * Special thanks goes to:
Human Sexuality Today, Fourth Ed. by Bruce M. King
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