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Yukon and Mackenzie River Basin
Transcript of Yukon and Mackenzie River Basin
Hunters used bows, arrows, traps, snares, dead falls, and for catching the caribou they used a drift fence and pound. People caught fish with dip and gill nets, traps, spears, and hook and line. Women were skilled in preparing meat for drying, hide tanning and sewing, making cooking and storage containers of skins, birch bark or coiled spruce basketry, and making fishnets from willow baste or babiche. Men made snowshoes, toboggans, canoes, sleds and hunting implements. A tumpline was a piece of material fastened around the forehead to help support heavy loads.Belt looms were used for weaving. Some Tutchone had raw copper for making knives and arrowheads mostly used for bone and antler.
The Mackenzie River basin is the largest river basin in Canada, covering 1.8 million square kilometers. In the region the land was mostly frozen all year long. That was called permafrost. When it thaws only the top melts and everything under still stays frozen. A large part on the land is in a tundra. A tundra is the layer of permafrost where food grows.
In the Mackenzie River Basin the climate was harshly cold in the winter time reaching up to -40 degrees and in the summer reaching up to 30 degrees . The winters were long and harsh but the snow made shelter for the animals .
The clothing was made from animal hide, fur, quills, and even trees. During winter time they would put animal fur on their backs for warmth. Men wore long shirts, long leggings and moccasins. Women wore long dresses, short leggings, and moccasins.
Yukon and Mackenzie River Basin
Mackenzie River Basin
The Mackenzie River system, 4241 km long , is the second largest in North America after the Mississippi river which 3734 km in length. Also taking place as the 10Th largest river in the world.
The first nations in the Mackenzie river had a few types of transportation. The main type of transportation was toboggans , but also traveled in canoes in the summer, spring, and fall. Sometimes their canoes were made out of cedar.
The first nations had houses that were small and only held 3-4 people. The houses were designed to put and take down easily. The houses were kept warm by animal hide. These houses were close together so 2 or more families could share the fire to not waste wood.
The twelve tribes of the Mackenzie and Yukon River basins spoke the Athabaskan language.The Chipewyan controlled the biggest territory. The slave controlled the area west of Great Slave Lake to the Mackenzie River
A Picture of the climate
The Cedar Canoe
All First Nations believed that their values and traditions were gifts from the Creator. One of the most important and most common teachings was that people should live in harmony with the natural world and all it contained.
The animals in Mackenzie River Basin were the moose, caribou, black bear, Dall sheep , beaver, hare marmot, groundhog ,wolverine, otter, marten, mink, muskrat, lynx, wolf, coyote, fox.