Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Week 2: Culture as Communication

A Lecture on EDWARD HALL'S THE SILENT LANGUAGE
by

Sofia Shank

on 25 February 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Week 2: Culture as Communication

Synonyms:
accomplishment, civilization, couth, cultivation, polish, refinement
Antonyms: barbarianism, barbarism, philistinism (Merriam-Webster)
Suburb
noun \s-brb\
People Like us
"Los Angeles (Calif.) Evacuation -- Caravan of evacuees leaving Mariposa Street Control Station for Santa Anita Assembly Center, April 28, 1942 Japanese Americans wait in traffic in packed cars to leave Mariposa Street following evacuation orders."
Sigismund Schlomo Freud
(1856 – 1939)
was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis.
Psychological repression
(psychic repression)
"But, what makes it more if you win and not if you lose?"
"Analogies decide nothing, it is true, but they can make one feel more at home."
"Moreover, as they slowly mastered the complexities of a given culture they were apt to feel that these complexities could be understood in no other way than by prolonged experience and that it was almost impossible to communicate this understanding to anyone who had not lived through the same experience"
That Japanese Americans were forced to live in "tar paper-covered shacks" of military design set up in remote, harsh locations is unrefutable evidence of the camps' punitive, prison-like conditions and an integral element of the entire internment camp narrative.
Sigmund Freud Documentary Pt. 1 of 3
American anthropologist and cross-cultural researcher Edward T. Hall.
The Hidden Dimension (1966)
(May 16, 1914 – July 20, 2009)
Edward Twitchell Hall, Jr.
(1893 - 1953)
Ralph Linton
Ralph Linton was a major American anthropologist of the mid-20th century, particularly remembered for his texts The Study of Man (1936) and The Tree of Culture (1955).
"Culture is a word that has so many meanings already that one more can do it no harm. Before this book is finished I will redefine it again--in such a way, I hope, as to clarify what has become a very muddied concept. " (20)
Edward Burnett Tylor
1832-1917
"Culture or Civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."
culture
noun
: cultivation, tillage
1
: the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties especially by education
2
: expert care and training <beauty culture>
a : enlightenment and excellence of taste acquired by intellectual and aesthetic training

b : acquaintance with and taste in fine arts, humanities, and broad aspects of science as distinguished from vocational and technical skills
4
OTHER BOOKS BY HALL
a : the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations
b : the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (as diversions or a way of life} shared by people in a place or time <popular culture> <southern culture>
c : the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization <a corporate culture focused on the bottom line>
d : the set of values, conventions, or social practices associated with a particular field, activity, or societal characteristic <studying the effect of computers on print culture> <changing the culture of materialism will take time — Peggy O'Mara>
5
: the act or process of cultivating living material (as bacteria or viruses) in prepared nutrient media; also : a product of such cultivation
6
3
a : a relatively high level of cultural and technological development; specifically : the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained

b : the culture characteristic of a particular time or place
2: the process of becoming civilized

3 a : refinement of thought, manners, or taste
b : a situation of urban comfort
civ·i·li·za·tion
1
Civilization
noun
"For anthropologists culture has long stood for the way of life of a people, for the sum of their learned behavior patterns, attitudes, and material things."

Middle English suburbe, from Anglo-French, from Latin suburbium, from sub (under) urbs (city). First Known Use: 14th century
Origin of SUBURB
"Compared to such notions as the unconscious or repression, to use two such examples from psychology, the idea of culture is a strange one even for the well informed citizen. The reasons for this are well worth noting, for they suggest some of the difficulties which are inherent in the curious concept itself. " (21)
"In sum, though the concept of culture was first defined in print in 1871 by E. B Tylor, after all these years it still lacks the rigorous specificity which characterizes many less revolutionary and useful ideas."

He earned a bachelor’s degree in anthropology from the University of Denver in 1936, a master’s degree from the University of Arizona in 1938 and a doctorate from Columbia University in 1942.
cul·ture
Concept of Culture
Culture or Civilization?
E.B Tylor's
"THE JAPANESE were the most alien enemy the United States had ever fought in an all-out struggle. In no other war with a major foe had it been necessary to take into account such exceedingly different habits of acting and thinking. Like Czarist Russia before us in 1905, we were fighting a nation fully armed and trained which did not belong to the Western cultural tradition. Conventions of war which Western narrations had come to accept as fact of human nature obviously did not exist for the Japanese. It made the war in the Pacific more than a series of landings on island beaches, more than an unsurpassed problem of logistics. It made it a major problem in the nature of the enemy. It made it a major problem in the nature of the enemy, We had to understand their behavior in order to cope with it."
Ruth Benedict
(born Ruth Fulton, 1887-1948)
In 1944, Benedict was asked by the US Office of War Information to conduct a study on the problems related to the occupation of Japan by American troops.
CHAPTER ONE:
Picture of Bronislaw Malinowski with natives on Trobriand Islands, ca 1918.
(1884–1942)
Bronisław Malinowski
The Trobriand Islands (today officially known as the Kiriwina Islands) are a series of island off the eastern coast of New Guinea.
This image is Bandit's Roost at 59½ Mulberry Street, considered the most crime-ridden, dangerous part of New York City.
Bandit's Roost by Jacob Riis, New York, 1888
How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890)
"A Cave Dweller." Living conditions in the slums of New York City at the turn of the last century were abysmally poor. This man is sleeping in filth atop a wooden board that rests on two barrels. Photograph by Jacob Riis, featured in his book How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Family Living in a 1-Room Tenement, NYC, 1890
East Side Public School
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
"As an anthropologist and a scientist I owe a tremendous debt t my colleagues, but especially to the late Ralph Linton, under whom I studied at Columbia University.
We spent many pleasant hours together as he tried out ideas he was developing in an amazing range of subjects.

As a student I found it difficult to communicate with professors, but with Linton the gulf experienced with other professors was never present. He always seemed able to communicate clearly and enjoy a real exchange of ideas. "
"Although I never knew her well, Ruth Benedict also provided an intellectual role model in her excellent innovative books Patterns of Culture and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword"
xii
: the act or process of cultivating living material (as bacteria or viruses) in prepared nutrient media; also : a product of such cultivation
: cultivation, tillage
a : enlightenment and excellence of taste acquired by intellectual and aesthetic training

b : acquaintance with and taste in fine arts, humanities, and broad aspects of science as distinguished from vocational and technical skills
c : the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization <a corporate culture focused on the bottom line>
d : the set of values, conventions, or social practices associated with a particular field, activity, or societal characteristic <studying the effect of computers on print culture> <changing the culture of materialism will take time — Peggy O'Mara>
a : the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations
b : the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (as diversions or a way of life} shared by people in a place or time <popular culture> <southern culture>
Culture
"Though they subscribe to this general view, most anthropologists tend to disagree however, on what the precise substance of culture is."
What is the precise substance of culture?
The question is:
CHAPTER 2:
WHAT IS CULTURE?
Among his students in this period were such prominent anthropologists as Raymond Firth, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Hortense Powdermaker, Edmund Leach and Meyer Fortes. From 1933 he visited several American universities and when the second World War broke out he decided to stay there, taking an appointment at Yale. Here he stayed the remainder of his life, also influencing a generation of American anthropologists.
From the Preface of Strange and Friend:
To understand a strange society, the anthropologist has traditionally immersed himself in it, learning, as far as possible to think, see, feel, and sometimes act as a member of its culture and at the same time as a trained anthropologist from another culture. This is the heart of participant observation method--involvement and detachment. Its practice is both an art and a science.
We would gather at her home frequently...at these informal gatherings many of us learned the human aspects of being an anthropologist"
(Traeger, 1971).
From 1932-1934, funded by a fellowship from the Social Science Research Council, she conducted fieldwork in Indianola, Mississippi, (the site of the White Citizens Council in the '50s) the first study of a modern American community. Her analysis of racial interaction was a watershed study for that time. She became a member of Queens College faculty in 1938, founding its Department of Anthropology and Sociology. At the end of World War II, Powdermaker went to Hollywood to conduct an anthropological study of the film making community.
"As fledgling anthropologists moved deeper and deeper into the life of the people they were studying they inevitably acquired the conviction that culture was real and not just something dreamed up by the theoretician"
FRANZ
BOAZ

MARGARET MEAD
newsreel
If they were going to japan we could tell them to read Ruth Benedict's excellent book , The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, with the caution that it was for background only and they shouldn't expect to find conditions exactly like those that Benedict described,

Of course the remarkable thing about Benedict's book was that, while she had never been to Japan and could only work with Japanese who were in the United States (the book was written during the war), it showed extraordinary insight into psychological process of the Japanese. It is one of the best pieces of evidence that the anthropology had something crucial and practical to say if it can only be systematized." (27)
In World War II many anthropologists such as myself were not only put to work on various projects having to do with the natives of the Southwest Pacific but were even asked to deal with the Japanese. Under the pressure of war some of the advice we gave was heeded --though like many wartime innovations, much that was done was forgotten in the peace that followed. (23)
Repression
Unconsciousness
-FRUED
"There was no way to gather data that would be legitimately checked, no way to reproduce field procedures, no way to equate an event in culture A with culture B except to try to describe each and they say that they were different.






It was difficult if not impossible, to say in precise terms what it was that made one culture really different from another, except to point out that there were people who raised sheep and others who gathered food, and there were those who hunted and those who cultivated plants; that people worshiped different gods and organized their societies in varying ways. "
The anthropologist knew that there were even more profound differences, but his readers and often the very officials he was advising preferred to ignore them.
"Honest and sincere people in the field continue to fail to grasp the true significance of the fact that culture controls behaviors in deep and persisting ways, many of which are outside of awareness and therefore beyond conscious control of the individual." (25)
"Without being quite aware of it these well-meaning gentlemen assumed a naively evolutionary view which classified most foreigners as ‘undeveloped Americans’. "

"Unfortunately some of these things are true, and they offer a convenient excuse for this country’s failures aboard on the technical assistance, military aid, and diplomatic fronts.” ( 24-25)
"Some of what follows will makes readers self-conscious.
They will discover that they are conveying to others things they never dreamed they were revealing. In some instances they will learn things they have been hiding from themselves. " (32)

"The language of culture speaks as clearly as the language of dreams Freud analyzed, but, unlike dreams, it cannot be kept to oneself. When i talk about culture I am not just talking about something in the abstract that is imposed on mankind and is separate from individuals, but about humans themselves, about you and me in a highly personal way." (32)
http://www.freud.org.uk/
"Most of our difficulties stem from our own ignorance. "
Even now, when the populations of the so-called ‘underdeveloped’ areas balk at the introduction of new techniques of health and agriculture by Americans, they are thought to be backward and stubborn, or thought to be led by greedy leaders who have no concern for their people’s welfare.” (24)
"When anthropologists stress this point they are usually ignored, for they are challenging the deepest popular American beliefs about ourselves as well as foreigners. They lead people to see things they might not want to see." (25)
"Culture is not an exotic notion studied by a select group of anthropologists in the South Seas. It is a mold in which we are all cast, and it controls our daily lives in many unsuspected ways." (29)
"If this book has a message it is that we must learn to understand the 'out-of-awareness' aspects of communication. We must never assume that we are fully aware of what we communicate to someone else. There exists in the world today tremendous distortions in meanings as men try to communicate with one another. The job of achieving understanding and insight into mental processes of others is much more difficult and the situation more serious than most of us care to admit" (29)
"Culture hides much more than it reveals, and strangely enough what it hides, it hides most effectively from its own participants. Years of study have convinced by that the real job is not to understand foreign culture but to understand our own." (26)
WEEK TWO
CULTURE AS COMMUNICATION
1959
“The way in which Hollywood has mechanized creativity and taken away most of its human characteristics again exaggerates the prevailing culture pattern, which gives little prestige to creativity not technological. This, of course, does not apply to the genius: an Einstein, Picasso, or a Rachmaninoff is given due honor. But we do little to bring out the creativity which lies in all human beings. Most people-just the everyday garden variety, not the geniuses-have far more potentialities for being creative than they use. But very few of them have the courage or desire to carry through their own ideas, big or little, because they have been conditioned to think routinely and follow the crowd. Our society tends, particularly today, to prize uniformity in thinking more than originality. The concern with the ‘know-how’ rather than the ‘why,’ with technology rather than meaning, permeates much of the thinking even in the social sciences when method becomes more important than problems. The use of the most exact scientific methods on a sterile and meaningless problem is not too different from the employment of the most technically advanced camera work to produce a banal movie. It is the same when our educational system stresses the accumulation of facts rather than the meaningful relationship between them, and the taking of so many courses that there is little time for thoughtful reflection. The radio with its ‘Information, Please’ and other quiz programs continues the emphasis. It is not that factual knowledge or scientific methods are unimportant, but rather that they are of use only in the larger context of problems and meanings. Hollywood expands these two features of our society to such an extent that it discourages and sometimes even forbids creativity in the very people whom it presumably pays to be creative.” (p. 318)
Full transcript