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Chapter 5:Religious Wars and State Building
Transcript of Chapter 5:Religious Wars and State Building
State Building Religious Wars and Civil War in France - France had a very strong Catholic monarchy from 1515 to 1559 under the rule of King Francis and King Henry II. They were able to control tax revenue and central civil service to increase their power.
- 40 to 50 percent of nobles began to make the shift from Catholic and became Huguenots to demonstrate their independence from the Catholic based monarchy
- The Huguenots were a big problem for the Catholic monarchy because they stood in the way of unity.
- The death of King Henry II in 1562 made the government weak, riots began to break out but Catherine de Medici, Henry II's queen, tried to maintain the monarchy as Catholic . This was the start of the civil war.
- A massacre broke out in 1572 that killed over 1 000 Huguenots
- Fifteen years of war followed
- France suffered economically, politically and agriculturally.
- In 1589 a Huguenot, Henry IV, who barely escaped the St. Bartholomew's day massacre took the throne.
- Henry IV was loved by his people but he thought he needed to centralize and be strong so the civil strife would end, to do this he decided to convert to Catholicism in 1593. He then proclaimed
- Soon after this the war ended. Catholicism,Calvinism and Huguenots Calvinism is a religion named after John Calvin, the religion being based off of "irresistibly of grace and doctrine of predestination". This religion is a branch of Protestant, and they believe in the bare bones of the Catholic church. They believe that things are more symbolic rather than literal. The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre August 24, 1572 Philip II and Catholic Spain Philip's main focus while reigning Spain's Empire was the Catholic Reformation and the Catholic Church.
Philip made sure that Catholicism was spread throughout the Empire, and suggested that it should be everyone's belief.
Philip ignored his debts which sent Spain into a financial crisis in years to come. Edict of Nantes -After French wars and Religion Henry IV of France decided to make the ultimate peace treaty (since the prior treaties were not successful) in which equality was required. Thus the Edict of Nantes was developed on April 13 1598.
-Edict of Nantes gave Calvinists and Protestants of France (Huguenots) rights in a nation. (Basically Catholic)
-One purpose was giving the freedom of conscience to all individuals.
-The Edict of Nantes was also bringing amnesty and reinstatement to civil rights for Protestants. This included the right to work in any field or state, and being able to bring grievances to the King.
-After the Edict of Nantes religious wars in France were over for the second half of the 16th century.
-Henry IV was a Protestant and then became Catholic to gain the thrown, and he was partial to both sides.
-Even though the Edict of Nantes brought peace neither party was quite content. Catholics rejected Protestants permanent acceptance into French society and still wanted religious seniority. Meanwhile, the Protestants desired to have equality with the Catholics. Revolt of the Netherlands - Spain wanted control of the Netherlands.
- Spain ran a taxation in the Netherlands which was highly resented by the people of the Netherlands because the revenue went mainly to Spain.
- Nobles in The Netherlands were concerned about the loss of local authority and centralization.
-Compromise was attempted in 1566, this provoked Calvinist riots throughout The Netherlands.
- Spain continued to try and conquer The Netherlands, but was distracted by troubles with England and France when the 2 countries recognized their independence.
- In 1609 peace was finally made with Spain. England- A Major Power Thirty Years War 1617- 1647 Witchcraft Literature William Shakespeare Art- Mannerism Chapter 5 By: Kaely, Alyx, Danielle, Taylor and Jessie Miguel de Cervantes, creator of Don Quixote William Shakespeare Fictional Don Quixote Sources http://www.thecaveonline.com/APEH/thirtyyearswar.html Opponents The Protestant Netherlands versus Catholic Spain Problems Leading Up To The Revolt The Inquisition The Inquisition was a group of Roman Catholics who were researching the severity of questioning, punishment, and lack of rights that the accused faced. However, it was easily shown that the steps taken when punishing the accused were highly unfair. There really was no questioning, but if you were accused you were assumed guilty and they didn't waste time questioning. More than 13,000 Conversos were put on trial in the first 12 years on the Spanish Inquisition, most of which were burned at the stake. This was done to try and break ties between the Jewish communities and the Conversos. The Inquisition was not abolished in Spain until 1808. - The revolt was driven by political, economic and religious concerns, but the religious conflict was the provoking factor causing the revolt. - The most famous battle was the Prince of Orange, Netherlands, against the Duke of Alba, Spain, who had previously betrayed the Netherlands and began leading the Spanish Army in 1567. - Alba only led the Spanish Army for six years, meanwhile the Prince of Orange was assassinated in 1584 and his son Maurice took his place and continued to lead for the years to come. Duke of Alba of Spain William, Prince of Orange - William Shakespeare is considered to be one of the world's greatest contributors to both English literature and Elizabethan drama. - Shakespeare in credited with having written 37 plays and 154 sonnets between 1589 when he was 25 years old and 1616 when he died at age 52. Accused of Witchcraft Marie Barast A man by the name of Jean Bourges living in Clairac complains that his wife gave birth to a perfectly healthy baby boy. His wife had too much milk and her breasts began to hurt. It was recommended that she apply goats fleece. A lady by the name Debaronne mentioned that she had some at home, so her sister in law, Maria Barast, went to go get it, and without being asked she took it directly off her stepdaughters spindle. After Jean Boruges wife applied the the goat fleece his son began to refuse to eat, he would close his mouth and make odd faces like an evil spirit was present. Marie Barast was blamed because it was thought she was a witch. -Witchcraft was seen as the ability to use the supernatural, whether for good or evil; to make crops grow better, make animals or humans more fertile, and to heal the sick.
- The idea of witchcraft was accepted by Protestants (Calvinist and Huguenots), Catholics and almost all other cultures.
- Witchcraft was seen most frequently in Protestant areas.
-People believed in witchcraft because they did not know how to explain the phenomenons taking place.
- In Europe it was made illegal to practice witchcraft or be a witch in1563 and was not taken out of the books until 1763. Art Baroque -The Baroque period replaced Mannerism, leaving all the doubts and tension in the past.
-Baroque brought a more relaxed and confident attitude throughout the1600s to 1800.
-Baroque comes from ‘barroco’ in Portuguese and Spanish or French ‘baroque’, which all transfers to ‘rough or imperfect pearl’.
-Artists started creating more original and creative pieces.
-Baroque art is characterized by movement, vivid contrast and emotional intensity. Artists used this time to add more action to their work creating more excitement. Use of more light and dark effects magnify a higher level of excitement (Similar to Mannerism)
-Sculptures showed less interest in portraying ideal or realistic beauty. Artists saw this as an opportunity to show off their skills and use of different textures.
-Counter Reformation was in effect in this time; this is when the church tried to regain power.
-During this Counter Reformation, artists and architects were sought out and brought to Rome. They were asked to create pieces that would restore faith and spirituality and bring people back to the Church.
-The Churches architecture needed to be changed. Examples of this are the sculptured scrolls on each side of the upper story buildings. Over the next one hundred years this had spread across Europe.
-Sculptures seemed to be able to break out from their usual architectural frames and appeared to float in space. -The Mannerism is a time period that introduces a new genre of art, and theater during 1520-1600 beginning in Spain and Italy.
-Mannerism came into place as a deliberate revolt by artists against the idea of Renaissance.
-People began to leave the church during Protestant Reformation now that the Church didn’t hold all the power. This allowed people such as artists, writers, poets and sculptors the opportunity to branch out.
-Since very few believed in the Church and it held less authority, there was a lot of confusion which the art reflected. Mannerism is a mirror image about what was going on in our world at this time.
- Mannerism replaced Renaissance art it included more emotion and distortion
-The figures artist drew were unnatural, disproportional and in impossible positions.
-Mannerism was separated into two periods, one being ‘anti classical’
-The title of the time period was changed due to the artists' needs to stress intellectual arrogance and artistic skill; this has led to critics saying they were working in an unnatural and exaggerated "manner".
-They changed their style to art imitating art instead of art imitating nature. Executions - In England witches were hung not burned. In other areas of Europe witches were burned but were first strangled.
- In places other than England and Holland people accused of witchcraft were tortured until they confessed of their wrong doings.
- Nearly 1000 women were executed in England but over 100 000 were put on trial. Music Its still a question what baroque music, literature and art all have in common.
Forms of music were born in the era including; the sonata, cantata and oratorio. Opera was created by the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody.
A significant technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass, a repeated bass line. Dido's Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique. - Don Quixote is the fictional and adventurous character created by Miguel de Cervants. - Miguel published his first novel in 1605, then published a second volume in 1615. - The stories are about a Spanish noble, Alonso Quijano, who decides to revive chivalry. In his attempts he recruits a farmer to accompany him as his squire. - The duo set off and face a world filled with adventure, which brings along themes of metatheatre, which is comedy and tragedy, as well as realism of the Spanish Golden Age. - Don Quixote has been listed as the "best literary work ever written" in the past. Painting of Don Quixote by Honore Daumier - Along with being a writer he was also an actor, a co-owner of the Globe theater and a wealthy property developer. - Some of his most famous works are Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet. - Shakespeare expanded the English vocabulary, both by using rare words and creating new ones. He was the creator of the word "assassination." -Mostly women between the ages 30 and 50.
- Mostly women were accused because they were believed to be more susceptible to the devil's influence.
- They usually were wealthy widowed women who owned lots of land. Therefore if they were sentenced to death the Catholic church could obtain the land for their own use.
- They were sometimes single mothers or mothers of suspected prostitutes and were not considered respectable.
- They were usually too neighbourly and as a result a disaster struck the neighbours.
- They usually provoked arguments against the Catholic church.
- They were usually sharp tongued and would talk back to superiors. 1562 - 1593 In 1572 thousands of people who had just heard about the upcoming marriage of Henry of Navarre and Marguerite de Valois had gathered for the St. Bartholomew's Day celebration. During the celebration an attack by the Catholics was made against the Huguenot people gathered. Men, women and children were all massacred and their houses looted. The chaos spread through more than a dozen cities in France with over 10 000 people being killed. Henry of Navarre managed to avoid death by converting the Catholicism. Firstly, religious independence was becoming very influential in the wealthy and independent merchants, which was causing controversy between others. Secondly, when Phillip II took over his father's role as head of Hapsburg empire the cosmopolitan commercial-based society that enjoyed their privileges of self-rule was interrupted by Phillip II authoritarian style. This did not sit well with the local nobles. Lastly, Spanish soldiers who were previously at war with France were being stationed in the Netherlands and provinces were heavily taxed to support them. This caused major problems throughout the Lowlands particularly because many of the Netherlands trading partners were enemies of Spain. All these things helped provoke the Revolt. -At the beginning of Philip II’s reign, Spain’s empire was made up of most of the Americas, the Halan possessions of Milan in the north and Naples in the south, 17 of Netherland's provinces, Burgundy and a few of the Mediterranean Islands.
-Historians have said that he started Spain’s “Golden Century” because Spain became the major empire in the west and both Spanish art and literature were amplified.
-At this point Spain was seen as the champion of the Catholic offense against Protestantism. Phillp II and Catholic Spain Pt 1 - To bring his land together he created a “central bureaucracy” with the lower class people.
- This allowed him to be less dependent on the upper class people.
- Philip was good at balancing religion and his job of ruling the kingdom.
- His bureaucracy was described as being “known for its meticulousness and its slow pace”.
- In Spain Catholicism and the church were vital parts of everyone’s life.
- To show off Spain’s change in power and spirituality Philip decided to build the Escorial- a new palace- close to Madrid.
- This palace is where Philip lived, ruled his kingdom, prayed and it also was a burial place for his family.
- The one flaw with Philip’s ruling was his control of money.
- Spain depended on its findings of silver and gold for their income.
- To help pay for wars he would resort to getting loans. - He also would forget about his debts, which is what caused Spain to have financial issue in the future. Philip II and Catholic Spain Pt 2 - Elizabeth I reigned England for a very long time period.
- In her opinion, to establish domestic peace and to have economic growth you needed to compromise and have moderation.
- In 1559 the anti-Protestant legislation, which Mary Tudor put in place before Elizabeth became the Queen, was officially withdrawn.
- Just after that an act of Supremacy was passed stating that Elizabeth I was “the only supreme governor of this realm”. This made her both head of the Church and of the state.
- The Act of Uniformity allowed a new version of the Book of Common Prayer to become the official church service for parishes.
- After that the Catholic and the Puritans did not agree with the religious settlement.
- By the end of Elizabeth’s reign the Catholics had become the minority after being the majority when she started.
- Because the Catholics opposed they planned many assassinations; Elizabeth saw these as treason against the crown.
- Catholicism, Spain and Phillip’s Aramada, lost the Catholic Church followers to the Church of England after the year 1588.
- The Puritans (Protestants who wishes to purify the English Church) were not attacked by Elizabeth and her advisers if they were still in the Church of England.
- While she was reigning Elizabeth avoided wars that would cost the county; although she supported cause that would help Protestantism and England.
- These were such things as challenging the Spanish in acts of piracy or helping the French Huguenots. England: A Major Power pt. 1 In the year 1570 the Pope (Puis V) cut Elizabeth off from communion with the Church; he wanted to start a war in Europe against the Protestant Country.
* England became more open about supporting the French Huguenots after the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.
* Phillip II from Spain believed that he needed to defeat the English because he thought that it would be the only way to take control over the Dutch. He also thought that defeating the English would bring back Catholicism to the English power and help improve Catholicism throughout Europe.
* At this time Phillip II had an “Armada Catolica” prepared to invade England.
* On May 9, 1588 the Spanish Armada (30 ships, 27,000 men and 2431artillery pieces) went to meet the Duke of Darma in the Netherlands then go to England.
* When they entered the English Channel they ran into 200 English ships lead by Sir Francis Drake.
* The English ships fought a much better battle than the Spanish.
* A storm hit soon after (English/Protestant Wind), and it blew the Spanish up north to area’s the sailors were not familiar with.
* This journey was described horrifically by sailors.
* The Duke of Medina Sidonia and his crew got to Spain in late September, by this time they had lost one third of their crew.
* This allowed England to stay protestant and be powerful against Catholicism and Spain was then weakened. England: a Major Power pt.2 Elizabeth I (1558-1603) ruled her empire in different ways than other rulers had previously ruled it, in the sense that she did not see religion to be the most important thing. She was against Catholicism and was pushing Protestantism upon her empire. While she reigned the country it became a Major Protestant state within Europe and also gained a lot of power. Johann Sebastian Bach was a brilliant composer during Baroque. He played the keyboard, organs and harpsichord. He brought Baroque music to its culmination, writing music for nearly every type of musical form. "Paris is worth a mass" Calvinism Catholicism Catholicism is a religion that is very literal and they believe that the wine and bread are the blood and body of Christ. They also believe in making the churches very ornate and showing the beauty of the religion. Huguenots Huguenots were mostly French Protestants and was named after an early leader Besancon Hugues. It is also based off the Protestant religion. Religious and Political Factors - The war first broke out in Bohemia in 1618 as the new King, Ferdinand of the Holy Roman Empire, tried to reinstate Catholicism into Protestant Bohemia. Economic and Territorial Consequences Fra Andrea Pozzo The Difference El Greco Mannerism & Baroque Sculptures Comparing Depth - The Thirty Year's War was a series of conflicts throughout all of Europe, starting with religious differences which began moving aside as the fight changed to a battle for power. - The variety of conflicts was a major contributing factor to the length of the war. - Due to the length, the battle caused great destruction throughout Europe, especially in the religiously separated states of Germany. - Here is a map of Europe that shows both the geography at the time and the timeline how territory changed hands. - At this time Germany was divided politically with rule from dukes and duchesses as well as bishops. Also, the country was split into Catholics and Lutherans, causing war due to the separation of the states. Many Catholics sided with Ferdinand and the Roman Empire represented. - France became involved in the war after the Hapsburg army continued to win battles and claim more land. Though France was a Catholic country they formed alliances with the Protestants to try to conquer Ferdinand and those loyal to him. - Here is a painting of Ferdinand, leader of the Catholic movement across Europe. - After 26 years negotiations began to form and in 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia was settled, ending the war. - As the war devastated Europe, Germany in particular, all land whose ownership changed hands was looted and plundered. - When armies passed through an area they took anything of interest or value, with no concern about how this would affect this land. - Post Thirty Years War the land that armies had looted contained little or no value, negatively affecting the economy as the cities had to be rebuilt. - As territory changed hands some land was destroyed, such as fields made unusable to grow crops after being trampled by an army of men. A painting portraying a battle won and the destruction to the land and economy because of it. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ac18 http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h25-war.html http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/thirty-years-war-ends