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Ancient Mesopotamia By Dylan J
Transcript of Ancient Mesopotamia By Dylan J
The capital city of Mesopotamia is Babylon. Babylon began to rise by King Hammurabi in 1792 B.C.
Under Hammurabi's rule, the city of Babylon became the most powerful city in the world. Located on the banks of the Euphrates River, the city was a major trade hub bringing together new ideas and products. Babylon also became the largest city in the world at the time with as many as 200,000 people living there at its peak.
The government in Mesopotamia is unusual. If too many citizens complain about a law then the law can be taken off all of the laws people have to follow. If people are not wanting to have the armies go into battle then they will talk to the king then the king will decide. The armies may still go into battle if the king doesn't listen to the people.
Mesopotamian government is the combination of monarchy and democracy. Kings had to hire officials who would work for the king. There are four classes in Mesopotamia the priests, the upper class, the lower class, and the slaves . The Priests were the most powerful because they had to make sure that people were good to make the gods happy.
The other three classes like the upper class wore jewelry and expensive clothes. The lower class worked for their money and goods , but the lower class had no houses. The slaves were from other cities that the Mesopotamian people conquered had slaves.
Mesopotamian art was intended to serve as a way to glorify powerful rulers and their connection to divinity. Art was made from natural resources such as stone, shells, alabaster and marble, and was often created as didactic pieces.
Sumarian architecture is probably the oldest serious architecture in the world. People living in the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers (modern Iraq) began to build really big, substantial buildings about 3500 BC. Because there's practically no building stone in this area, but lots of clay, Sumerian architects built their buildings out of mud-brick or fired brick.
Mostly what they built was huge staircases of mud-brick which are called ziggurats. Each little city-state would build its own ziggurat, partly to please the gods and partly to show how powerful the town was. On top of each ziggurat, there was a small temple to Ishtar or Anu or another Mesopotamian god.
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The Land Between Two Rivers
Throughout the ancient Mesopotamia, the most common offensive weapon was the bow and arrow and the most common armor was the helmet and shield. Other frequently used weapons were spears , javelins, maces with stone heads, battle-axes with metal blades, and daggers. The straight-bladed sword was rarely used in Mesopotamia before BC. Instead, for slashing, swords with sickle-shaped (curved) blades were preferred. Other weapons included slingshots with an effective range of over 300 feet and digging tools for burrowing through or under enemy walls.
Soldiers wore helmets, first of felt or leather, later of hammered metal, laced boots, and in Sumer, a cloak of linen or leather to which metal discs were sewn for armored protection. By Assyrian times, special troops were outfitted with body armor made of hundreds of overlapping metal scales that could flex and lend mobility in combat.
The kings of the Assyrians used a fearsome army to build and expand their empire. The fear of the army was used to keep the newly conquered people from rebelling. They built forts and roads throughout the empire to help the army to travel quickly to areas that might be rebelling or being attacked. Rebellions were quickly disbanded and destroyed.
Eventually, the Assyrian Empire became too big to manage in this way. The cruelty of the Assyrian soldiers caused too many rebellions throughout the empire which spread the army much too thin. When the Babylonians united with the Medes in 612 BC, they overthrew the Assyrians and brought an end to their reign.
One of the greatest strengths of the Assyrian army was its chariots. A chariot is a two-wheeled vehicle pulled by two to four horses. Typically there were two riders standing in the chariots; a driver and a soldier armed with a spear and a bow and arrow. Sometimes a third man was added to protect the rear.
Chariots were used to smash into enemy lines to create a gap for the rest of the army. They were also used for leaders and generals who could move about the battlefield quickly to issue orders.
The Land Between Two Rivers
By: Dylan Jones
By: Dylan Jones
All civilizations have some kind of religious system. A religious system includes both a set of religious beliefs, usually in a god or gods, and forms of worship.
Located in the Tigris-Euphrates valley was the land of Mesopotamia. It was here that the world’s first cities were founded between 4000 – 3500 BC by the Sumerian people. They developed their own belief system, with a variety of gods and goddesses. They developed religious practices and rituals for worshiping these powerful deities. Their daily lives were also much different than those of the previous hunter-gatherer groups that wandered the world in a constant search for resources.
Mesopotamian Class divisions
Mesopotamian Writing and Spoken Language
The sumerians ( or mesopotamians ) created a written language called cuneiform. This name comes from the latin word “wedge”. The sumerians used a wedge-shaped stylus ( a sharp pointed tool ) to etch their writing in clay tablets. Cuneiform was invented around 2400 B.C.E. ( or B.C. ).
Mesopotamia’s 3 major achievement #1
Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia in 3500-3000 BC. It is considered the most significant among many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those of the Sumerian city of Uruk which advanced the writing of cuneiform 3200 BC. The name comes from the Latin word cuneus for 'wedge' owing to the wedge-shaped style of writing. In cuneiform, a carefully cut writing implement known as a stylus is pressed into soft clay to produce wedge-like impressions that represent pictographs (word-signs) and, later, phonograms or `word-concepts', closer to a modern day understanding of a `word'. All of the great Mesopotamian civilizations used cuneiform like the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Elamites,Hatti, Hittites, Assyrians, Hurrians and others until it was abandoned in favor of the alphabetic script at some point after 100 BC
Cuneiform is important in ancient Mesopotamia because it was the first written language and it helped them keep track of what they had, what they sold, and to write important messages. It is important in modern times because if it was not made, then we would not be able to advance in technology much if at all because we need a written language to keep from making the same mistakes over and over.
Farmers in ancient Sumer grew imported crops like barley in a land without much rainfall and with a limited water supply. One of the ways that they were able to do this was through developing a system for controlling the flow and direction of water from the river.
Canals and irrigation ditches were built for redirecting the water to the fields used for farming. Regulators were then used to raise and lower the water levels in the canals and ditches so the water could be used by the farmers.
During the growing season, each farmer was allowed only a certain amount of water. When it was a farmer's turn to water his fields the regulator was adjusted so that water ran from the canal into an irrigation ditch which ran alongside the farmer's fields. The farmer could then water his fields.
Farming was important back then and now because it was a main source of food. Without it, the human race would never change and could die out. Farming is still important nowadays because we import and export crops for money and gain. Without farming, our modern economy and way of living would be severely changed.
The oldest known wheel found in an archaeological excavation is from Mesopotamia, and dates to around 3500 BC. This period was known as the Bronze Age. By this time, human beings were already planting crops, herding domesticated animals, and had some form of social order.
One of the reasons why the wheel was invented only at this point in history is due to the fact that metal tools were needed to chisel fine-fitted holes and axles. This leads to the next reason – the wheel was not just a cylinder rolling on its edge. It was a cylinder that was connected to a stable, stationary platform. This wheel-axle concept was an amazing invention, but making it was a challenge. The ends of the axle, as well as the holes in the center of the wheels had to be nearly perfectly smooth and round. Failing to achieve this would result in too much friction between these components, and the wheel would not turn or could break. Although the axle had to fit snugly in the holes of the wheels, they had to have enough room to allow them to rotate freely. Given the complexity of the wheel and axle combination, it may be surprising that the wheel was not initially invented for transportation purposes. Instead, it has been claimed that wheels were first used by potters. It seems that it was a potters’ wheel. It seems that the use of wheels for transportation happened about 300 years later.
The wheel has been around for thousands of years and has only become more popular. The wheel in ancient times and in modern times are pretty much the same, the main use during both times is transportation. In addition to that, in modern times, people pretty much only use vehicles with wheels like cars and bikes to move around. This should certainly count as testament for why it is an important part of life in ancient and modern times.
Farmers ate barley as the main crop because it was used to make beer and bread. There were other things like beans ,onions, garlic, leeks, melons, eggplants, turnips, lettuce, cucumbers, apples, plums, fig, pears,and last but not least dates.
People drank lots of beer ,wine was available but it was too expensive.
The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers between 3000 and 300 B.C.E. developed impressive skills for fashioning clothing. The evidence of these civilizations' clothing remains on sculptures, pottery, and in writings left on tablets and royal tombs. It indicates that a thriving textile or fabric industry existed in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, which included the Sumerians, the Akkadians, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the Persians. Textiles were used for trade purposes and were also given as gifts to kings and queens.
Although the earliest civilizations used animal skins to protect themselves from the environment, people soon learned how to pound wool and goat hair into felt or weave it into cloth. Wool was the most common fabric used to make clothing in Mesopotamia and was used for practically every type of garment from cloaks to shoes. Looms for weaving fabric were in use as early as 3000 B.C.E. The skill of early weavers is extraordinary. Some fragments of linen discovered in royal tombs are almost as finely woven as modern-day linen fabric. Linen was a more luxurious fabric and was woven for the clothing of the wealthy, priests, and to adorn statues of gods. Other finely woven fabrics also became available for the wealthiest in Mesopotamia. Soft cotton was introduced in Assyria around 700 B.C.E. , and silk became available later.
Babylon was the capital city and center of the Babylonian Empire. During its peak, Babylon was the largest city in the world with populations exceeding 200,000 people. It was home to kings such as Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar as well as the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon which are one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Babylon is located in central Mesopotamia along the banks of the Euphrates River. Today the ruins of the city can be found around 50 miles south of Baghdad, Iraq. Babylon is mentioned several times in the Bible.
Mesopotamian weapons this way:):):)
Money for days