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Interventions: Evidence-Based Behavioral Strategies For Individual Students
Transcript of Interventions: Evidence-Based Behavioral Strategies For Individual Students
for Individual Students
The basis for
Response to Interventions (RTI)
process for behavior. Interventions: Pre Intervention Highly Structured Interventions STOIC Who? Entire class - crowd control
Goal? Eliminate behaviors that might have warranted individual intervention if left unchecked Early-Stage Interventions Interventions A through F
*Try easiest first
*If all are unsuccessful, refer to school counselor, psychologist, social worker, child-study team, or behavior specialist
*The only absolute rule in behavior management is belittlement of students ha no place in schools. Respect and dignity in interactions have a positive and lasting impact and build up student strengths and replacement behaviors rather than squelching or containing the problem behavior.
If these don't work, the next step is Highly Structured Interventions *Interventions G through R
*More time intensive and consuming
*No sequential order
*Usually worked collaborataively with Counselor, Psych,
Behavior Specialist and/or problem-solving team
*Too involved to implement without assistance Structure: Organize the classroom for success
physical layout and environment
level of structure
Teach students how to behave responsibly in the classroom
Teach expectations for behavior exactly as expected of them in all settings
Observe student behavior (supervise!)
Circulate Scan Use Proximity Collect data
Interact positively with students
Maintain at least a 3:1 ratio of positive to negative interactions by
increasing opportunities for positive interactions
minimizing the frequency, duration, and intensity of negative interactions
Correct irresponsible behavior fluently - that is in a manner that doesn't interrupt the
flow of instruction and nonpunitively.
Calm Consistent Brief Immediate Respectful Comprehensive behavior syllabus that
delineates classroom policies procedures,
and routines *Is the classroom arranged to get to any part of the room easily?
*Are materials and tools needed easily accessible to all without disturbance?
*Is the class consistent, varied, and open to movement opportunities?
*Are effective beginning and ending routines in place and used consistently?
*Are clearly defined expectations for instructional activities in place and adhered to (ACHIEVE)?
*Are transition between activities expectations clearly defined? STOIC checklist of essential
considerations Teach students how to behave
responsibly in the classroom *Have lessons on expectations been created and explicitly taught for your classroom activities and transitions?
*Have you created lessons and explicitly taught expectations for classroom routines and policies?
*Have you provided teaching and reteaching as needed? Observe student behavior (supervise!). Do you circulate and scan as a means of observing/monitoring student behavior?
Do you model friendly, respectful behavior while monitoring the classroom?
Do you periodically collect data to judge what is going well and what needs improvement in management plan? Interact positively with students *Do you interact with every student in a welcoming manner?
*Do you provide age-appropriate, nonembarrassing positive feedback?
*Do you strive to interact more frequently with all students when they are
engaged in positive behavior rather than when they are engaged in
negative behavior? Correct irresponsible behavior fluently - that is,
in a manner that does not interrupt the
flow of instruction. *Do you correct consistently?
*Do you correct calmly?
*Do you correct immediately?
*Do you correct briefly?
*Do you correct respectfully?
*Do you have a menu of in-class consequences that can be applied to a variety of infractions?
*Do you have a plan for how to respond to different types of misbehavior fluently? *defines what students need to know about your behavior expectations and
*information must be communicated directly to students by teaching them
exactly what is expected to be successful in the classroom
*best if initially taught over a 3 day period
*plan to reteach essential aspects of the syllabus before and after vacations,
prior to major exams, and any time behavior is slipping. If tardiness is a problem throughout the school, consider adopting a schoolwide approach to reducing tardiness. Intervention A Planned Discussion: One or more adults confer with a student about a particular concern and develop a plan for resolving it. Intervention B Academic Assistance Intervention C Goal Setting Intervention D Data Collection and Debriefing Intervention E Increasing Positive Interactions Intervention F STOIC Analysis and Intervention Minor but potentially annoying behavior:
Moderate misbehavior in the early stages
*poor listening skills
*inaccurate or incomplete work
Chronic or severe concerns (as part of a comprehensive plan)
*absenteeism Behavior Problems may result from a lack of information.
Easy and quick intervention;
A respectful and potentially empowering way to address problem behavior. Constant corrections and reprimands represent another day in another unpleasant environment. Students with a tolerance/resistance to correction may respond better to this personal intervention.
Demonstrate your concern, involve the student in brainstorming solutions and clarify that you are there to help him/her learn and grow. When and how?
Create a window of opportunity during the first five to ten minutes of independent work time.
Inform class in advance that you meet with students to get to know them and help everyone find success.
Talk about grades, attendance, performance concerns, goals, or just to visit about school.
Prepare students and let them know you will be with students - with no interruptions for a few minutes.
Meet with students regularly, and not just with behavior problems.
Use the What Happened? form
Give student a chance to describe the event. Note differences in reporting, and describe the action plan you intend to follow: Detention, parent contact, PBR, keep record in case repetition of behavior occurs. Incomplete or late work Disruptive behavior Class clown behaviors Poor self-concept Lack of energy Stealing
Attention problems Tantrums Anger or hostility Poor motivation Cheating Lying
Shy or withdrawn behavior Complaints about health Lack of energy Determine whether the student is able to: *decode assigned reading material with reasonable rate and accuracy based on fluency tables
*retain information that has been read
*make inferences and engage in other higher order thinking skills from material that has been read
*understand and retain information from written directions
*complete assignments independently
*stay on task for extended periods of time
demonstrate basic organizational skills for keeping track of assignments, budgteing time, completing homework, studying for tests, etc. Students are often frustrated when their performance fails to meet their aspirations. Feelings of inadequacy and inappropriate behaviors mask a sense of incompetence. Student may become withdrawn, unmotivated, clownish, sarcastic, distractable, or hyperactive. Compensation skills are HIGH while academic skills may be LOW. Motivation: Interaction of two variables: Expectancy for Success: How successful a person thinks he or she will be on a task.
Value: How much a person wants something - extrinsically motivated or intrinsically motivated. When both are present HIGH motivation present. When either factor is low, motivation is LOW.
Motivation = Expectancy x Value Behavior and academics: These two factors are interwoven like the chicken and the egg. If academics can be improved, behaviors often dissipate because attention is shifted away from misbehavior while providing positive interaction with adults. Before beginning this intervention, discuss your concerns and goals for improvement with the student. Gather background information that
may help in designing and implementing
the intervention. Student Parent Contact student's parents
to discuss the problem and invite them to
participate. Keep them informed of all
aspects of the plan. Steps: Step 1: Identify concerns and establish a focus
Step 2: Develop a plan for conducting an informal academic assessment
Step 3: Conduct the assessment
Step 4: Consider and plan for remediation options
Step 5: Consider adaptation options
Step 6: Set up a plan to review with staff members
Step 7: Meet with staff
Step 8: Finalize the plan
Step 9: Implement the plan Adaptation Strategies: 1. Focus assignments on essential course content and skills
2. Focus test items on essential course content and skills
3. Build cumulative review of essential objectives into subsequent units of instruction
4. Construct and use framed outlines
5. Design and use interactive graphic organizers
6. Identify and preteach essential vocabulary words
7. Highlight textbooks and printed materials
8. Transcribe or summarize highlighted text to create condensed text.
9. Provide two-column study guides
10. Provide framed writing assignments
11. Teach students to manage their himework Appropriate for: Minor misbehavior
Sloppy work Annoying habits
Leaning back in chair Conduct
rambunctious behavior Attitude
lack of positive role models
lack of positive interactions with adults
poor self-esteem Helps students identify what they hope to accomplish and what actions they can take to reach their goals.
Early stages of problem behavior: Reduces likelihood that more intensive interventions will be required later. Chronic or severe cases: Helps student find motivation and steps necessary to change.
Later-stage intervention: Used with other interventions, it increases the likelihood student will change behavior over long term. Students may lack a sense of direction and purpose. They may have long range goals, but lack the skills required to meet those goals. They don't know how to take action to move to the end. Because of continued failure, they begin to see themselves as bad or incapable of success. These students often experience difficulty setting realistic goals and select goals that are too easy and the results are no pride in the accomplishment. They may also select goals so challenging they set themselves up for failure, ending in futility. Side benefits Goal Setting:
Increases both the clairty and specificity of the teacher's expectations
Provides extra opportunities for positive adult attention
Communicates and fosters high expectations.
Helps student and adult identify specific, attainable, and worthy goals
Students take ownership of their actions
Adults acknowledge the accomplishments
Students get 'back on track' Implementation Steps Step 1: Develop a plan
Step 2: Meet with the student
Step 3: Provide ongoing support and encouragement Appropriate for any:
chronic behavior of concern
chronic misbehavior Empirically based and data-driven decision-making based on progressively more systematic data and progressively more intensive interventions to help you understand the problem, the trigger, and what to do about it. Why?
*Gathering data often solves the problem
all by itself.
*Data forms the base of all subsequent
*Using data is the only way to determine
objectively whether interventions are
working. Data Collection required that you identify
the problem objectively. As you think about what behavior to measure, you will determine whether you have defined the problem in an observable way.
Start with an anecdotal record and be as specific as possible about what you've seen, what happened, when, what might have caused it, what happened prior to the event, what happened during the event, and what happened immediately following. This helps you pin down the specific behaviors you want to target.
Zero in on two behaviors you can monitor by counting frequency, duration, or on a rating scale. Soon, you will notice patterns and you can narrow the focus to one aspect of behavior to be counted or recorded. Step 1: Choose an objective data collection method a. Weekly Misbehavior Recording Sheets
b. Basic frequency count
c. Advanced frequency coung
d. Countoons/public posting
e. Duration recording
f. Interval recording or scatterplot
g. Rating scale Step 2: Select a way to display the data Step 3: Meet with the student a. explain the data you plan to collect
b. meet regularly with the student to discuss the data and debrief Appropriate for:
Chronic attention-seeking behavior
*creating excuses for every mistake
*distractibility Poor self-concept
*the clingy student
*helplessness Help a child who fishes for attention through misbehavior by teaching and showing that responsible behavior is an effective way to get adult attention and by showing that responsible behavior in your class results in more desired attention than misbehavior. Step 1 Plan more positive interactions Review the problem and overall goal for the student.
Self-assess or have an observer monitor your ratio of interactions.
Decide how you will respond to misbehavior.
Develop a plan to increase positive interactions.
Continue to collect objective data to determine whether the
intervention is helping the student's behavior improve.
Determine who will meet the student to discuss and finalize the plan. Step 2 Meet with the student Help the student identify and rehearse specific actions s/he is
willing to take to reach goal.
Discuss the plan for ignoring some misbehaviors and providing
consequences for others.
Review ways the teacher and student can engage in positive
Set up a time to meet regularly with the student to discuss
Review the roles and responsibiolities of all participants.
Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement. Step 3 Follow the plan Evaluate the impact of the intervention, making revisions and
adjustments as necessary.
When the student demonstrates consistent success, fade the
Once the intervention has been faded, provide continued support,
follow-up, and encouragement. It is important to use professional judgment, adjusting procedures to meet the needs of the situation and the individual. Step 1 Identify what function the behavior serves The student lacks the ability or awareness to meet target
The student is trying to get something.
The student is trying to avoid or escape something. Step 2 Plan a STOIC Intervention Structure and organize the environment to set up the student for
Teach expectations - teach the student how to behave responsibly
within that structure.
Monitor and observe the student's behavior.
Interact positively with the student.
Correct fluently - calmly, consistently, briefly, and immediately. Step 3 Meet with the student Discuss the intervention plan.
Meet regularly with the student to discuss the data and debrief. Requires more planning and forethought than previous interventions because the problem is chronic and resistant to easy interventions. Determine whether the misbehavior is chronic.
Think about the function of the misbehavior
Effective classroom management comprises just five variables.
Correction Intervention G: Managing Physically Dangerous Behavior and Threats of Targeted Violence
Intervention H: Managing Severaly Disruptive Behavior
Intervention I: Managing the Cycle of Emotional Escalation
Intervention J: Cueing and Precorrecting
Intervention K: Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation
Intervention L: Positive Self-Talk and Attribution Training
Intervention M: Teaching Replacement Behavior
Intervention N: Functional Communication
Intervention O: Structured Reinforcement System
Intervention P: Defining Limits & Establishing Consequences
Intervention Q: Relaxation and Stress Management
Intervention R: Internalizing Problems and Mental Health