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Braiding and Braid extensions

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Heidi Tarman

on 5 November 2014

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Transcript of Braiding and Braid extensions

Historically, the first highly decorative braids were seen among African tribes. Many of these tribes were and still are identified by their distinctive hairstyles.
As early as 3000 BC, Egyptian women wore braids or plaits decorated with shells, sequins and glass or gold beads.

The revival of cultural hairstyles in the 1960's and 1970's resulted in the banning of wearing braids in many professions and even high schools, which in turn lead to lawsuits. Suppression was followed by acceptance and mainstream adaptation, and today braids are as acceptable as any other hairstyle in most modern workplaces.
Understanding the Basics
During the consultation, you will be analyzing the condition of your client's hair and scalp, paying particular attention to the hair's texture.
Hair Analysis: What is Different?
During the consultation,
you will be analyzing the condition of your client's hair and scalp,
particular attention to the hair's texture.

In braiding and other natural hairstyling, texture refers to the following 3 qualities:
Diameter of the hair
Coarse, Medium, Fine
Feel. Does the hair feel oily, dry, hard, soft, smooth, coarse or wiry?
Wave pattern or coil configuration. Is the hair straight, wavy, curly or coiled? A coil is a very tight curl. It is spiral in formation and, when stretched, resembles a series of loops.
In this Chapter,
the term textured hair refers to hair with a tight coil pattern.
Braiding the Hair
Braiding styles can be broadly classified as visible and invisible. A visible braid is a 3-strand braid that is created with an underhand technique. An underhand technique, also known as plaiting, is one in which the left section goes under the middle strand, then the right section goes under the middle stand. This technique is often used for cornrowing because many braiders believe it creates less tangling.
Interestingly, the underhand technique has nothing to do with holding the palms up or down.
From its
origins in Africa
to its widespread use today, hair braiding has always played a significant role in grooming and beauty practices. Different styles of braiding signified a person's social status within the community. Today braiding styles continue to communicate important signals about a person's self-esteem and self-image.
Braiding and Braid extensions
Why Study Braiding and Braid Extensions
Understanding the Basics
Braiding the Hair
Learning Objectives
Explain how to prepare the hair for braiding
Demonstrate the procedure for cornrowing
Why Study Braiding and Braid Extensions?
Very popular and consumers are interested in wearing styles specific to their hair texture.
These techniques provide an opportunity for stylists to express their artistic abilities and to add another high-ticket service to their current service menu!
All professional cosmetologists should be prepared to work with every hair type and hairstyle trends within every culture.
Working with braid extensions exposes cosmetologists to the fundamental techniques of adding hair extensions, which is another lucrative service for the stylist and the salon.
Braiding salons have popped up in many areas in the U.S. These salons practice what is commonly known as
natural hairstyling,
uses no chemicals or dyes, and does not alter the natural curl or coil pattern of the hair.
Now people of all ethnic backgrounds appreciate its beauty and versatility. In all cases, offering your clients many different styles of braiding can inspire your creativity as a hair artist, and create a greater sense of client loyalty.

Some braided styles take many hours to complete. With proper care
a braided hair design can last up to 3 months, with six to eight weeks being preferable.

Giving your clients a thorough and detailed consultation is the best way to avoid misunderstandings!!!
Always fill out a client card during the initial consultation and update it every time the client returns.
In addition to texture, consider the following:
Density. Look for areas where the hair is thin.
Condition. Damage and/or breakage from previous braids or chemical services.
Length. Make sure hair is physically long enough for the braiding style.
Scalp Health. Check the condition of the scalp to ensure it is healthy and properly cared for.

Damaged hair should not be braided since it will further stress the hair.
Never choose styles that place excessive tension on the hairline as hair is generally thinner and finer in those areas.
Within the natural hairstyling /braiding world, hair is referred to as natural or virgin if it has never had any chemical treatments.
Techniques used in natural hairstyling include braiding of extensions; twisting, overlapping two strands to form a candy cane effect;
weaving, interweaving a weft or faux hair with natural hair
; wrapping; and locking to create what are called African locks or dreadlocks.
Tools for Braiding
Boar-bristle brush (natural hairbrush).
Best for stimulating the scalp as well as removing dirt and lint form locks.
Soft nylon brushes may be an option for fine, soft hair around the hairline.
Square paddle brush. This brush is good for releasing tangles, knots and snarls in short, textured hair and long straight hair. They are pneumatic
because they have a cushion of air in the head that makes
the bristles collapse when they encounter too much resistance.
Key in preventing breakage
Vent brush. Has a
single or double row of widely spaced pins with protective tips.
Vent brushes are
used to gently remove tangles on wet wavy or dry curly hair, as well as on human hair extensions.
Wide tooth comb. This combs
have long rounded tips to avoid scratching the scalp.
The distance between the teeth is the most important feature of the comb. It lets textured hair move between the rows of teeth with ease.
Double-toothed comb. Separates as it combs. Excellent for detangling wet curly hair.
Tail comb.
Excellent for design parting, sectioning large segments of hair and for opening and removing braids.
Finishing Comb. 8-10 inches in length. For cutting.

Cutting comb. For cutting small sections. And used only after hair is softened and elongated with a blow-dryer.
Pick with round teeth.
Useful for lifting and separating.
Blow-dryer with pick nozzle.
Loosens the curl pattern, stretches and softens textured hair.
Diffuser. Dries without dehydrating the hair and without disturbing the finished look.
5 inch scissors. Creates shapes, trimming bangs and excess extension material.
Long clips.
Butterfly clips
Hood dryer
Small rubber bands
Implements and materials needed for extensions:
Extension fibers. Kanekalon, nylon, rayon,human hair, yarn, lin and yak.
A board of fine, upright nails through which human hair extensions are combed: they are used for detangling or blending colors and highlights.
Drawing board. Flat leather pads with very close, fine teeth that sandwich human hair extensions.
Materials for Extensions
A wide variety of fibers are available fot the purpose of extending hair. Keep in mind the kind of fibers you use will largely determine how successful and durable the extension will be. When buying new product, buy in small quantities and test the fiber on a mannequin before using on a client.
Nylon or Rayon
Human hair. Gold standard for hair extensions.
Most human hair is imported from Asia.
with little information about how it was processed, or even if it is 100 percent human hair. Deal only with suppliers you know and trust.
A manufactured, synthetic fiber of excellent quality.
Made in a wide variety of types, with different names, colors and textures. Some Kanekalon fibers are high-heat resistant, some are made for braided styles and others
mimic human hair as closely as possible.

It is durable, soft and less likely to tangle than many other synthetics.
Can old up to shampooing and styling.
Nylon or rayon synthetic. Less expensive and is available in varying qualities. Reflects light and leaves hair very shiny.
A drawback is that both of these fibers have been known to cut or break the surrounding natural hair
. Also repeated shampoo will make them less durable and could melt if high heat is applied.
Yarn. Can be made of cotton or a nylon lend and is very inexpensive and easy to find.
Yarn is light, soft and detangles easily.
Available in many colors,
does not reflect light and gives a matte finish.
Lin. Beautiful
wool fiber imported
from Africa.
Has a matte finish and comes only in black and brown
Strong fiber
comes from the domestic ox found in the mountains of Tibet and Central Asia. It is shaved and
used alone or blended with human hair. This helps remove the manufactured shine.
Working with Wet or Dry Hair
In general, it is best to braid curly hair when it is dry. If curly hair is braided wet, it shrinks and recoils as it dries, which may create excess pulling and scalp tension. This can lead to breakage or hair loss from pulling or twisting. If creating a style that requires wet hair, you must allow for shrinkage.

Straight, resistant hair is best braided slightly damp or very lightly coated with a wax, or pomade to make it more pliable.

Textured hair presents certain challenges when styling. It is fragile both wet and dry. Because most braiding styles require the hair to be dry,
is the most effective way to prepare the hair for the braiding service.
Not only does it dry the hair quickly, it softens the hair in the process, making it more manageable for combing and sectioning. Blow-drying also loosens and elongates the wave pattern, while stretching the hair-shaft length.
Control the hair while blow-drying to prevent frizz.
An invisible braid, also known as an inverted braid or french braid, is a 3-strand braid that is produced with an over-hand technique
. In an overhand technique, the first side section goes over the middle one, then the other side section goes over the middle strand. You can start on either side. The key is that the side sedtions go over the middle section.

The following discussion and procedures will provide you with a basic overview of foundational braiding styles. Mastering these techniques will help in learning of more advanced and trendy braiding techniques. Your creativity----along with additional training and practice ---- will allow you to create the most complex and beautiful styles you and your client can imagine.

The procedures begin with the most basic and move on to more complex techniques, including braided extensions.
Rope Braid
The rope braid is created with two strands that are twisted around each other. This braid can be done on hair that is all one legth or on long, layered hair.
Fishtail Braid
The fishtail braid is a simple, two strand braid in which hair is picked up from the sides and added to the strands as they are crossed over each other. It is best done on non-layered hair that is at least shoulder length.
Invisible Braid
The invisible braid (3 strand), also known as inverted or French braid, uses an overhand pick-up technique.
It can be done on or off the scalp with or without extensions. Ideal for long hair, but can be executed successfully on shorter hair with long layers.
Visible Braid
Visible braid uses an underhand pick-up technique. Also known as plaiting, and when done with all the hair into one braid it is known as a dutch braid.
Single Braids
Single braids, also known as
box braids and individual braids, are free hanging braids,
with or without extensions, that can be executed using either an underhand or overhand technique.
Can be used with all hair textures and in a variety of ways.

The partings or subsections for single braids can be square, triangular or rectangular. The parting will determine where the braid is placed, and how it moves. Single braids can move in any direction. Make sure to braid in the direction you want them to go.
Extensions for single braids come in a wide range of sizes and lengths, and are integrated into the natural hair using the 3-strand underhand technique.
Cornrows, also known as canerows, are narrow rows of visible braids that lie close to the scalp and are created with a 3-strand, on the scalp braiding technique.
Consistent and even partings are the foundation of beautiful cornrows. Practice, practice, practice, will help you develop speed, accuracy and finger and wrist dexterity.
Cornrows with Extensions
Extensions can be applied to cornrows or individual braids with the feed-in-method. In this method, the braid is built up strand by strand. Watch how much hair you feed in to prevent damage and to prevent an artificial look.

The traditional cornrow is flat, natural, and contoured to the scalp. Partings are very important because they define the finished look/style.
A cornrow achieved by the feed-in method will last longer and look more natural, without placing excessive tension on the hairline.
Tree Braids
Tree braiding is a newer way to add hair for a longer look. The client's hair is braided along with an extension, but the final look show mostly faux hair. When the look is completed, the fee-hanging sections of the extensions completely conceal the cornrows, creating the look of naturally long, straight or wavy hair, depending on the texture of the extensions.
Always take into consideration the clients face shape when creating a braided style.
Remember an oval face is egg-shaped, and most any braided style suits this facial shape.
For suggestions on other face shapes see page 517.
Locks, also known as dreadlocks, are separate networks of curly, textured hair that have been intertwined and meshed together.
Hair locking is done without the use of chemicals. The hair locks in several slow phases, which can take form 6 months to 1 year depending on the length, density and coil pattern of the hair. See page 518 for the Developmental Phases of Locks.

Locks are more than just a hairstyle; the are a cultural expression. There are several ways to cultivate locks, double twisting, wrapping with cord, coiling, palm rolling and braiding. They can also form themselves in textured hair that is not combed or brushed out. Cultivated African locks have symmetry and balance.

Three basic methods of locking are:
The comb technique. Effective during early stages.
The palm roll.
This method involves applying gel to dampened subsections
, placing the portion of hair between the palms of both hands and rolling in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction.
Braids or extensions.
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