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Greek Mythology

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Libby Topping

on 22 September 2015

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Transcript of Greek Mythology

god of darkness
goddess of night
goddess of day
god of light
god of doom
god of painless death
god of sleep
god of retribution
god of strife
goddess of the sea
from Chaos came Gaia
Mother Earth
Place in the underworld, prison
god of the sea
god of the sky
Hundred Handed Giants
12 Titans
Uranus is jealous of strength of giants and mad at the arrogance of cyclopes so he banishes them to Tartarus
god of the sun
god of the dawn
goddess of the moon
Overthrows Uranus and his tyranny
Throws his body parts into the sea
Aphrodite is born
from Uranus's body parts
Cronus is warned that he would be overthrown by his kids... like father like son. So rationally, he swallowed his children
goddess of the hearth
god of the underworld
god of the sea
goddess of women
god of the sky
goddess of the harvest
Rhea tricks Cronus into swallowing a rock instead of Zeus
Zeus overthrows Cronus after 10 years of war... then throws the Titans into Tartarus
Hestia is the oldest daughter, so first to be swallowed by Cronus and last to be taken out. She is the oldest and youngest.
Hestia rejected Poseidon and Apollo because she didn't want to be married. That goes against everything Aphrodite is. They became enemies
Most olympians have stories. Hestia doesn't have many. It is her essence that makes her famous.
Hestia was given the "keys" to Mount Olympus and stayed there while everyone else had adventures.
She never left
This is one of the only stories to be told about Hestia
The gods had just had a party, most of them passed out, so did Hestia. Priapus, very drunk, came into her room and attempted to take advantage of her. She woke up and yelled out. It scared him out of the room. He stumbled, embarrassed, away from her.
goddess of spring growth
Hades got the bad end of the deal. Once his brothers and he overthrew Cronus, he was in charge of the underworld, that's fun. So, he asked Zeus for a companion.
Persephone was Zeus and Demeter's daughter. She was abducted by Hades into the underworld to be his wife.
Her mother, Demeter, was horrified at her disappearance. When she found out that Zeus approved this, she wouldn't make things grow until she saw Persephone again.
Since Persephone had tasted the fruit of Hades, she had to return to the underworld once a year.
Flowers bloomed when she returned, marking "spring" and when she went back to the underworld "winter" would come and everything would die.
Overthrow of Cronus
Once Zeus had made Cronus regurgitate all of his siblings, the war began.
The three brothers, Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades, went to the underworld and released the giants and cyclopes from Tartarus. The cyclopes made weapons VERY well. The cyclopes were very grateful of the brothers, so they made each one of them a gift. Hades was a helmet that made him invisible as long as he wore it.
The Twelfth Labor of Hercules
Hercules had to do a bunch of stuff for this guy named King Eurystheus because the guy's kids died and Hera made him go insane.
The last task was to bring Cerberus up to King E. so, Hercules went to Eleusis, which is a city in Greece. He learned how to safely enter the underworld because Cerberus was a three-headed monster dog that guarded the underworld.
Hercules asks Hades if he can bring Cerberus to the surface. Hades says that if he can defeat Cerberus without any weapons than he can have him.
Hercules does. He brings Cerberus to King E. The king gets scared and sends Cerberus back to the Underworld
god of war
goddess of war
goddess of childbirth
goddess of youth
god of blacksmiths
goddess of chaos
god of the sun
goddess of the hunt
god of wine
mortal mother
Oceanus Tethys
goddess of wisdom and warfare
Helen of Troy
other Pleiades
messenger of the gods
Hades is not the god of death, but god of the dead
Theseus and Pirithous
goddesses of torturous death
These guys wanted to marry Zeus's daughters, Theseus chose Helen of Troy. Pirithous chose Persephone.
Hades found out about their plan, obviously. So he arranged for the two to "have dinner". Whenever they sit down, they are stuck in the chair.
When Hercules comes to the Underworld, he rescues Theseus but Pirithous cannot be removed because he tried to steal an olympian's wife.
Minthe was a water nymph from the River Cocytus.
She was amazed by Hades and his golden chariot and would have seduced him.
But, Persephone turned her into a mint plant
Demeter was also goddess of marriage, fertility, grains, and the cycle of life and death.
Demeter searched for Persephone, she kind of stopped doing her job. So, thing stopped growing. Again, this was the Greek people's explanation for the seasons.
Demeter is looking for Persephone, so she goes to King Eleusis palace. She looks after his boys and teaches one the secrets of farming.
Greek: how humanity learned to farm
daughter of Demeter and Poseidon
Poseidon and Demeter
Poseidon pursued Demeter. So, she ran away, taking the form of a horse. Poseidon took the form of a stallion. Impregnated her, while they were horses. They had Despiona and an immortal horse, Arion
goddess of the sea
Queen of the Sea
She was similar to Thalassa.
She was more recognized as Queen of the sea, since she was married to Poseidon.
The Runaway Bride
When Poseidon started courting her, she ran away to Atlas. He is the son of Iapetus.
Delphin, Poseidon's servant, found her and convinced her to marry Poseidon.
As a reward, Delphin was turned into a constelation
The Battle for Athens
Athena became the patron goddess of the city, replacing Poseidon
Poseidon was still present in the city because he was his cahoots with King Erechtheus.
So, at the end of the year, Athena and Poseidon decided they would give the Athenians one gift. Then the people
would decide who the patron god would be.
Poseidon hit the ground with his trident. There was a spring of salt water. Athena gave them and olive tree
They accepted Athena's gift and she became the patron goddess.
Walls of Troy
Poseidon and Apollo made Zeus mad because they meddled in Hera's plan
Zeus sent them to Laomedon, King of Troy and took away their authority.
Laomedan told them that he would reward them for building a wall around Troy.
He didn't keep his word, so Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack him. After that, Hercules killed the monster
Also the goddess of marriage, sky and starry heavens
Zeus and Hera
Hera was to grew up to be the most beautiful of all the goddesses. so she and Zeus got hitched.
Gaia made them the garden of the golden apples as a wedding gift. The garden was guarded by the Hesperides
some think that Zeus was unsuccessful in courting Hera. So, he changed himself into a cuckoo. Hera picked it up and made it her pet, and Zeus seduced her.
Hera's Rebellion
Hera convinced the gods to join her in rebelling against Zeus. She was bitter because he was unfaithful to her. The gods would drug his and then tie him up. They also stole his firebolts.
All Hera had to do was drug him and the other god's would tie him up. Unfortunately, they didn't think of what to do after that.
They kept arguing and woke up Zeus, but without his firebolts, he was powerless. Themis feared a civil war so she let Briareus, who's loyalty lied with Zeus, to release him
The gods begged Zeus for forgiveness, but he wouldn't have it. He hung Hera in the sky with gold chains.
she wailed in pain all through the night and Zeus couldn't sleep for four nights.
Finally, Zeus told her that if she never rebelled again, then he would let her down. Obviously she did.But, she still did meddle in his business.
Hera was angry at Zeus for giving birth to Athena without her. So she gave birth to Hephaestus without him.
She was disgusted by his ugliness and threw him off of Mount Olympus.
Hephaestus was so angry at Hera for rejecting him.
He made her a magic throne, so when she sat on it, she couldn't get up. Hephaestus would not let her go.
One night, Dionysus got him drunk and took him back to Olympus. He let Hera go, in exchange for Aphrodite as his wife.
The Monster Typhaon
Hera was so angered by the birth of Athena by Zeus that she provoked Gaia to create the monster Typhaon.
Jason and the Argonauts
Jason's uncle Pelias had unlawfully taken the throne of Iolcus. Jason set out to claim what was rightfully his. Luckily for him, Hera also hated Pelias.
Hera had already devised a plan to defeat Pelias, but it would require a true hero. To test Jason, Hera made Jason pass a violent stream to get to Iolcus.
While on his way he came across an old woman. Jason was noble. He put the lady on his back and went across the stream. Little did he know that the old lady was Hera in disguise. When he got to the middle of the stream Hera became very heavy and Jason lost a sandal in the stream.
An oracle told King Pelius
that he should beware of a stranger wearing only one sandal
When Jason (wearing only one sandal) gets to Iolcus, Pelius sends him off to find the golden fleece, to prove his worth.
About the Fleece
The king and queen of Thessaly (Athamas and Nephele) had two kids Helle and Phrixus (his name means curly, like the golden fleece). Athamas got married to Ino and Nephele was enraged. She made a drought come over the land. Ino was jealous of her step kids and plotted their deaths. She roasted all the crops in Thessaly. When the farmers went to ask an oracle about their crops, Ino told them to lie and say that in order for the crops to grow again, they must sacrifice Phrixus and Helle. Then, Nephele sent a flying ram with a golden
fleece to rescue them. Helle fell of the ram into the Dardanelles river, in a spot that is now called Hellespont. The ram talked to
Phrixus and helped him get to Colchis. Then Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Poseidon. Then he stayed at the
house of Aeetes until he died. He hung the Golden
Fleece on a tree where it was guarded by a
The Dardanelles Strait basically divided the Black sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Sea of Marmara
Darndanelles Strait
Jason and The Argonauts
Many heroes came to journey with Jason, including Hercules
even though the chances of survival were slim. The heroes were called the Argonauts because they sailed on the Argo
The Island of Lemnos
The women of Lemnos had been cursed by Aphrodite because they did not worship her. She made them smell SO bad that their husbands couldn't be around them. So, their husbands went to the main Island and found some harlots. The harlots were bitter and killed the men in their sleep.
The island didn't have men for a while. The Argonauts showed up and mixed with the women creating the Minyans.
(greek explanation for the race from Aegean area)
The Harpies
King Phineus has told secrets of the gods, so he was punished by Zeus. Zeus's harpies were sent to King Phineus. The Harpies would snatch up things from anyone they were told. So everyday, King Phineus's food would be taken by the Harpies. He grew weaker and weaker each day. Jason felt compassion toward him and sent two of the Argonauts after the Harpies and they never bothered him again. In return, Phineus told the Argonauts how to get to Colchis. But they should watch out for the Clashing Rocks on their way there.
Clashing Rocks
The Clashing rocks were called Symplegades. They guarded the entrance to Colchis. If anything went through them, they would come together and crush it. King Phineus told Jason to release a dove to go through the rocks. If the dove made it through than he should go through QUICKLY, but if the dove was crushed then he would never make it through. The dove made it through and The Argo made it out with minor damage to the back of the ship.
Getting the Fleece
King Aeetes had the Fleece now. He said he would give the fleece to Jason if he did 3 tasks for Aeetes. Jason could not complete the tasks and he became saddened. So Hera, still wanting to defeat Pelias, convinced Aphrodite to make Medea, Aeetes's daughter, fall madly in love with Jason. Medea helped him with all 3 of his tasks.
1) Jason had to plow a field with fire- breathing bulls. He also has to harness them himself. Medea gave him a cream that would make him flame-resistant.
2) The seeds that Jason planted were dragon teeth and each seed sprouted a warrior. Medea told him to throw a stone in the middle of the army and they would turn on each other.
3) For his last task Jason had to defeat the dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece. Medea gave him a potion that would make the dragon fall asleep. Jason got the Fleece and sailed away with Medea.
Coming Home
Medea helps Jason kill Pelias by tricking his daughters into cutting him up and boiling him.
Medea tells them that she has a special herb that can make things younger. She demonstrates with a sheep that turns into a lamb. The daughters cut him up and throw him into a pot, but Medea doesn't put the herbs in the pot and killed Pelias.
Medea and Jason ran away into Corinth and settled down. Jason became engaged to another women to keep his status upheld. Medea confronted him and asked him about all the help she had given him. Jason said he owed it all to Aphrodite who made her love him in the first place. Medea gave Jason's new wife a dress, as a wedding gift, that she wouldn't be able to get off and she burned to death. Medea then murdered Jason's two kids.
Jason defeated the new king of Iolcus and became king. But since he had betrayed his vow to Medea he lost his support from Hera. He died alone and unhappy.
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