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Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion

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abby wagner

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion

Chapter 17 Ethos (Credibility) Major components of ethos include competence and trustworthiness.
Goodwill- wanting what is best for the audience over what is most beneficial to themselves
understanding listeners' needs and feelings
empathize with audience views
respond quickly to others communication Building Credibility Share your qualifications to speak on the topic
Present strong evidence form reputable sources
Highlight common ground with the audience
Choose your words carefully
Show respect for conflicting opinions
Practice your speech until delivery is fluent Logos logos- presenting trustworthy facts to back your claims and clearly show how those facts have led you to those claims

evidence- convince the audience that you know what you are talking about, you will need to supply proof Avoiding Loss of Credibility Getting your facts wrong
Pronouncing words incorrectly
Failing to acknowledge potential conflicts of interest
Stretching to find a connection with the audience Using Evidence One of the best ways to provide proof is to research evidence from credible sources
Identify your sources and their qualifications
Say who the source is for each piece of evidence with their qualifications before stating the evidence
Concrete documentation enhances credibility
Give listeners new evidence
Provide precise evidence
Look for compelling evidence Methods of Persuasion Kara Wagner
Justin Dryjanski
James Miller Using Reasoning Reasoning is the line of thought that connects the facts you present and the conclusions you draw from those facts
Inductive reasoning is the generalizing from facts, instances, or examples and then make a claim on those generalizations Avoiding Logical Fallacies Hasty Generalization - bases a conclusion on limited or unrepresentative examples
Post Hoc Fallacy - assumption that just because one event followed another, the first event must have caused the second
Reversed Causality- speakers miss the fact that the effect is actually the cause
Ad Populum Fallacy - assuming that a statement is true or false because a large number of people say it is
Straw Person Fallacy - replace your opponent’s real claim with a weaker claim so you can more easily argue it Pathos (Emotions)
Fear Appeal-An argument that arouses fear in the minds of audience members
To be effective it must demonstrate a serious threat to the audience
Must be ethical and not exaggerated to “sound” more persuasive
Works even better when audience can believe they have the power to remedy the problem
Ethical word choice strengthens power of ethical appeal. Four Types of Reasoning Example Reasoning – presents specific instances to support a general claim
Comparison Reasoning – argue that two instances are similar and are comparable
Sign Reasoning – claiming a fact is true because indirect indicators are consistent with that fact. Most effective if you can cite multiple consistent signs of the fact you are claiming
Casual Reasoning – argue that one event has caused another. Explain, support, and correlation between the link of cause and effect Avoiding Logical Fallacies Slippery Slope Fallacy – argue against a policy because you assume that it will lead to some second policy that is undesirable
False Dilemma Fallacy – claim there are only two possible choices and one choice is wrong, so the audience must embrace the other choice
Appeal to Tradition Fallacy – argue that an idea or policy is good simply because people have accepted or followed it for a long time Pathos has a "Dark Side" Many people who have used powerful forms of pathos while not staying ethical can be dangerous i.e. Adolf Hitler
Word choice can cross the line into manipulation, exaggeration, and even untruth
Loaded language fallacy- emotionally charged words convey meaning that cannot be supported by facts
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