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Chapter 14 Power, Politics and Organizational Justice
Transcript of Chapter 14 Power, Politics and Organizational Justice
Power in Organizations
Politics and Political Behavior
Nature of Power
A person's effectiveness in affecting the behavior of others through influence is the ultimate determinant of whether he or she is a leader. No one can truly be a leader without the ability to influence others. And if someone does have the ability to influence others he or she clearly has the potential - at least - to become a leader.
People attempt to manage how others perceive them through variety of mechanism:
1. Appearance – choice of attire, selection of language and use of manners, and body posture
2. Jockey to be associated only with successful projects
Wednesday, February 26, 2014
Vol XIV, No. 001
- is a special and occasionally subtle form of influence that deserves special mention
- a direct, intentional effort by someone to enhance his or her image on the eyes of others
Power – one of the most significant forces that exists in organization
- important ingredient in organizational failure
- to further their own careers
- by making themselves look good
they think they are more likely to receive rewards
- attract job assignments and promotions
- to boost their own self-esteem
- to acquire more power and hence more control
- defined as the ability to affect the perceptions, attitudes or behavior of others
- cornerstone of the process of one person attempting to affect one another
- regardless of the leader’s traits or behavior, leadership only matters if influence actually occurs
Obsession in impression management resorts to dishonest and unethical means
- take credit for work of others to make himself look better
- exaggerate or even falsify their own personal accomplishment to enhance their image
People engage in impression management for variety of reasons:
Power, Politics and Organizational Justice
Change in Perception
If a person can make another person recognize that her working conditions are more hazardous than she currently believes them to be
Change in Attitude
If a person convince someone else that the organization is much better place to work than he currently believes in
Change in Behavior
If someone can get others to work harder or to file a grievance against their boss
Influence can be dramatic or subtle.
Source and target of influence might be a person or group.
Influence might be intentional or unintentional.
Influence can be used in ways that are beneficial and harmful.
Hence, influence is a major force in organization that managers cannot afford to ignore.
While there is clearly nothing wrong with "putting your best foot forward," people should be cognizant of the impressions they are attempting to create and make sure they are not using inappropriate methods
Power in Organizations
Power – as the potential ability of a person or group to exercise control over another person or group
Power may reside in the following:
- individuals (managers and informal leaders)
- formal groups (departments and committees)
- informal groups (clique of influential people)
Therefore, power is:
- pervasive part of organizational life
- affect decisions ranging from the choice of strategies to the color of the new office carpeting
- it makes/breaks careers
- it enhances/limits organizational effectiveness
Classical framework developed by John R.P French and Bertram Raven
- most widely used and recognized analysis of the bases of power
- French and Raven identified five (5) general bases of power in organizational setting (legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent)
Bases of Power
Position Power vs. Personal Power
An individual with personal power often can inspire greater loyalty and dedication in followers than someone who has only position power
The influence of a leader who relies only on personal power is limited because followers may freely decide not to accept his or her directives or orders.
The Uses of Power in Organizations
Gary Yukl – presented a useful perspective for understanding how power may be wielded
- includes two closely related components
Depending upon circumstances, a leader using any given base of power might encounter one of three responses—commitment, compliance, or resistance—when trying to exert power
Table 14.2 indicates the three (3) outcomes may result when a leader tries to exert power
- base of power
- how it was operationalized
- subordinate’s individual characteristics
Commitment – will probably result from an attempt to exercise power if the subordinate accepts and identifies with the leader
Compliance – subordinate is willing to carry out the leader’s wishes as long as doing so doing so will not require extraordinary effort
Resistance – subordinate rejects or fights the leader’s wishes
Table 14.3 suggests ways for leaders to use various kinds of power most effectively