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Teeth: bony structures that tear, chop, and grind food for swallowing. Sharp incisors and pointed canines in the front of the mouth are designed to tear into tough foods while flattened premolars in the back of the mouth grind grains and plant matter.
Tongue: maneuvers food around during chewing and mixes it with saliva to form a wet lump known as a bolus. Top and sides of the tongue are covered with small projections known as papillae which contain taste buds.
Hard Palate: roof of the mouth that is made up of two bones covered by a mucous membrane.
Soft palate: found behind hard palate and just above the throat, when food is swallowed it rises to close off the nasal passage
Peristalsis: Muscle contractions that help food move through the digestive system. This is a mechanical digestive process. Esophagus: First of the succession of hollow organs that transport their contents through muscular contractions known as peristalsis
Upper esophageal sphincter: Valve found just below the intersection of the throat and esophagus is a ring of muscles that relaxes to let food enter the esophagus
Lower esophageal sphincter: Located below junction of the esophagus and stomach, this valve is made up of a ring of muscles that relaxes to let food enter the stomach. It then tightens to keep the stomach’s contents from pushing back into the esophagus. Pyloric sphincter: ring of muscles forms a valve between the stomach and small intestine. It opens and closes to control the passage of semi-digested food to the small intestine
Gastric folds: these folds on the interior of the stomach help grind and digest food and increase the surface area of the stomach
Muscular walls: three layers of muscle line the stomach walls. When they contract, the muscles squeeze and expand the stomach to churn food matter. The 3 layers are: the longitudinal muscle layer, circular muscle layer, and the oblique muscle later. Liver: Weighing in at 3 pounds, this is the bodies largest gland. Its an accessory organ for the digestive system. It detoxifies the blood and creates bile (which is used to break down fats)
Gallbladder: Plum size green, muscular sac hang from the liver. It collects, stores, and concentrates bile from the liver.
Pancreas: that produces important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, and a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine. The small intestine is narrow tube that starts at the stomach and ends at the large intestine. The final steps of digestion and nutrient absorption occur in the small intestine over a period of 5-6 hours.
Duodenum: first portion of the small intestine where secretions from the liver and pancreas are received and most of the chemical digestion takes place.
Jejunum: long, coiled middle portion of the small intestine that stretches from the duodenum to the lieum.
Ileum: final portion of the small intestine where remaining nutrients are absorbed and utilized. Large Intestine (Colon): the main part of the large intestine, which passes from the cecum to the rectum and absorbs water and electrolytes from food that has remained undigested. Its parts are called the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon.
Cecum: a pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines.
Appendix: a small finger-like tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals. An extension of the cecum, contains a mass of white blood cells make a minor contribution to immunity.
Ascending Colon: the first main part of the large intestine, which passes upward from the cecum on the right side of the abdomen.
Transverse Colon: the longest part of the colon and passes horizontally from the right to left.
Descending Colon: the part of the large intestine that passes downward on the left side of the abdomen toward the rectum.
Sigmoid Colon: the S-shaped last part of the large intestine, leading into the rectum.
Rectum: the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus. The Digestive System By: Bella, Ari, and Dani
Harry just pooped. Evolution:
- Animals' digestive systems adapted according to their diets. (Ex: Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore)
- Expandable stomachs
- Longer alimentary canals --- More nutrients absorbed
- Plant vs. Meat digestion
-Cud Pancreas: long organ that’s positioned behind the stomach that produces insulin and enzymes that aid digestion. Pancreatic enzymes help digest food in the small intestine, while insulin helps regulate the amount of sugar in the blood