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Transcript of 5.07 DBA
by Anna Pagel 9th Grade
1. Why did England develop constitutional monarchy while absolute monarchies ruled in France, Spain, and Russia?
England developed a constitutional monarchy because the kings of that time were making incompetent decisions. When Charles the l called a meeting of Parliament in 1628 so he could raise taxes for wars, Parliament took the opportunity to limit some of the king's powers through the Petition of Rights. It decreed that the king could not use martial law to rule the country, raise taxes without Parliament's consent, or imprison people just to get them out of the way. Charles l went along with the petition to get the money he needed but afterwords dismissed Parliament again.
2. Describe how ideas from the Middle Ages and Renaissance led to the Scientific Revolution.
During the Middle Ages in Europe, the emphasis in life was not on individual and their place in the world. The Church was the most important thing at that time. With the spread of the Renaissance, the most important thinkers of the time began to see that the individual was also valuable, an idea connected in humanism. Because the Renaissance had brought with it the rediscovery of the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, most of the Renaissance thinkers were following the writings of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galen. Scientists in the 1500s and 1600s began to realize that they needed to test out their ideas and perform experiments to see if they were possible. The Scientific Revolution would be a result of this shift from simply thinking about how something might work, to coming up with an idea and then testing it out with experiments and measurement.
3. Describe how scientific theories and methods of the Scientific Revolution challenged those of the early classical and medieval periods.
The Scientific Revolution was a revolution because it brought about a major change in how people saw the world. Along with the Renaissance, it marked the beginning of the modern world. Scientists began thinking of the world in terms of science. They began using accurate observations and measurements in their work, something that was not previously being done in Europe. This led to a more accurate view of the natural world.
4. Identify and explain 3 major contributions of individuals associated with the Scientific Revolution.
- Francis Bacon: Inductive reasoning
4. Identify and explain 3 major contributions of individuals associated with the Scientific Revolution.
Nicholas Copernicus: Nicholas Copernicus challenged the old theories of a geocentric universe with his new theory that the sun was the center of the universe instead of Earth. This was the heliocentric theory.
Francis Bacon: Francis Bacon proposed that scientists should start using his invention of inductive reasoning. Rather than coming up with a conclusion on the spot, scientists could research the facts, study and test them, then come to a conclusion.
Johannes Kepler: Johannes Kepler was interested in the relationships between numbers and the properties of things in the natural world. Kepler used a telescope to determine that the planets moved around the earth, not in circles. He discovered that planets move faster as they approach the sun and slower as they move away. He also discovered that the distance of a planet from the sun determined how long it took for that planet to go around the sun. He created the three laws of planetary motion.
5. Identify 3 major scientific figures of the 20th century.
James Watson and Francis Crick (Medicine and Biology): James and Watson Crick found that DNA is in the shape of a double helix in 1953. Understanding DNA and genetics allows biologists to explain why people have certain characteristics.
Orville and Wilbur Wright (Transportation). Orville and Wilbur Wright completed the first successful airplane in 1903.
Sigmund Freud and Karl Jung (Medicine and Biology): Famous psychologists like Sigmund Freud and Karl Jung legitimized the study and treatment of the mind. Freud, an Austrian psychologist is most known for his research on the mid and for founding a type of thrapy known as psychoanalysis.
6. Describe 3 major breakthroughs of the 20th century.
3. Medicine and Biology
7. What impact do scientific breakthroughs have on our lives today?
These scientific breakthroughs have improved our modern lives for the better. For example, 150 years ago people did not automated vehicles and had to walk/ride horses everywhere. A week trip to the next state only took three days. Now, cars have improved so much that it only takes a couple hours to drive to the next state. These examples gave mankind tools to explore the world.
8. Identify the major causes of the Enlightenment.
Influenced by Greco-Roman ideals, the Renaissance planted the seeds with the philosophy of humanism and its focus on the individual. The Reformation challenged the traditional authority of the Church and furthered the ideas of individualism. In addition, the Scientific Revolution promoted observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the analysis of cause and effect. Improvements in the education system and a sharp increase in the number of printed books helped from a society more hungry for knowledge than ever before. These events instilled an interest in the process of inquiry and analysis in the people of the era as they looked in different areas for the answers to life's questions.
Thomas Hobbes claimed that the human race was cruel, selfish, and greedy by nature. The natural state of mankind, according to Hobbes, was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
David Hume believed that desire, not reason, governed human behavior. He is known as a skeptic and supporter of empiricism, which is the theory that knowledge comes only from direct experience through out senses.
Adam Smith shared Hume's beliefs to a certain extent. Smith's first major work was entitled "The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In this book, he tried to answer the question, "What is the basis of human morality?" Smith's answer does not depend entirely on rationalism. Instead, he claims that morality derives from a feeling of sympathy between the person who completes an action and the onlooker.
9. Summarize 3 major ideas of Enlightenment philosophers.
10. How did the Enlightenment impact the American and French Revolutions?
American Revolution and French Revolution
The Enlightenment ideals had a major impact on the American Revolution. These concepts were rooted in Enlightenment thinking. American statesmen drew on the ideas of John Locke and Baron Montesquieu to gain independence from their British colonizers and to develop their own unique form of a democratic-republic. The American Revolution in turn had a significant impact on the French people. First, the French supported the American patriots, donating funds and hoping to permanently weaken the British Empire. The British and the French had been enemies for centuries so they were glad to help the rebel colonists. Assistance that the French gave the American colonists drained the French treasury. As bankruptcy loomed, the French king demanded more money through new taxes (mainly on the poor). Second, the American Revolution served as an example to the oppressed French people that revolution-in the truest sense of the word-was possible. The American revolutionaries' founding documents strongly affected by John Locke and other Enlightenment philosophers, awoke in the French a hopeful yearning for freedom. French revolutionaries borrowed heavily from the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution when crafting their own declaration and design of freedom.
11. Briefly explain the French Revolution-include the causes and effects.
The spark of the Revolution started in 18th century France, where the king, Louis XVI, issued heavy taxes on the poor to pay for the lavish lifestyle of the nobles. King Louis was also weakening the national treasury by donating funds to American patriots, who were having their own revolution. The French supported the British so that the Americans could permanently weaken the empire. The American Revolution also inspired the peasants, and they in turn, wrote their own declaration of freedom. In the late 1700s, France was trying to resolve its money problem by holding a meeting called the Estates General. This meeting had up to 3 classes of people (estates): the First Estate (the clergy), the Second Estate (the nobility) and the Third Estate (the lower- and middle-class). This meeting proved to be difficult since the class with the biggest money problem (the Third Estate) had the least amount of power. The First Estate and Second Estate were largely exempt from taxes, although they were the wealthiest. This meant that that burden of taxation fell almost entirely on the backs of the Third Estate, the poorest of the people. For this reason, the Third Estate demanded better representation and the formation of a people's National Assembly. The current members of the Estates General refused this proposal, and backlash, locked out the members of the Third Estate from the Estates General. On June 20, representatives from the suspended Third Estate held a impromptu meeting at a nearby indoor tennis court. They swore an oath to work together until France had a constitution that guaranteed rights to ordinary people. Under, great pressure, Louis XVI recognized the National Assembly, which then renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly. However, many people in France were skeptical and thought that the king would ultimately try to put out the Revolution. Because of this, a period of Great Fear swept the French republic in 1789. Peasants looted and rioted throughout the French countryside. They were fearful of conspiracy, punishment, and murder by the feudal lords. On July 14, 1789, an angry Parisian mob stormed the Bastille, a fortress prison, and liberated a handful of prisoners. Though this event had little tangible benefit, it was a powerful symbol of the peopel's power to free themselves from the power of the hated king.
12. What impact did Napoleon have on France and Europe?
Europe: Napoleon had a great impact on Europe. He lead to great reforms in the educational and judicial fields in France. He also made France a military powerhouse. This lead to multiple invasions by Napoleon and his army in various other countries of Europe.
France: Napoleon impacted France by forming a new government. He also reshaped the current boundaries of Europe. His influence has impacted revolutionist and nationalists worldwide.