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Human Development

on 7 March 2014

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Matsumoto def: institutionalized relationship that publicly recognizes the long-term commitment that two people make to each other.
Western definition...
Gender Definitions
Changing Cultures, Changing Gender Roles
Culture and Identity: Gender and Sexuality
Sex Definitions:
Sex & Sexuality
Gender: culturally appropriate behaviors/activities for men & women

Gender socialization: the process of learning the social roles according to sex

Gender Role: degree to which a person adopts the gender-specific behaviors

Gender Identity: degree of awareness/recognition that you adopt a particular gender role

Gender Stereotypes: characteristics typically associated with men and women (and boys/girls)
Groups of 2 or 3:
Its easy to judge (like Kevin mentioned). What cultural values support the practice?

Are there similar values in the U.S. or in other countries you're familiar with?

How are these values enforced?

-Cultural norms: when and with whom is it appropriate/inappropriate for men and women to have sex

-Different values on:
chastity, homosexuality, extramarital sex, etc.

-Cultural practices example: female circumcision
Mate Selection
Toddler to adult
- leaving toddler years - working

- Colonial times same in US

- Europe-as soon as children were capable of doing without their mother

- City kids: do not share responsibility-video games-controlled entertainment

- one event to show the time: losing teeth shows independence
Socio-historical changes in mother's and father's roles over millennium
-5 million years ago: nomadic gathering/hunting, flexible and egalitarian gender roles
-10,000 years ago: agriculture and settled life, gender division
-Gender roles in U.S. is tied to changes in family organization and economic structure
separation of children and adults (1800)

15 year old African American: man at home, child at school (Rogoff, p. 172)

How would you treat such a student?

Would you interfere if a female student of yours had to marry?
“A marriage is something that affects so many people, relatives, ancestors, neighbors, and friends, in serious ways. How can you possibly leave it up to one young person, driven by lust and passion, to make a sound decision?” (qtd. Shweder et al in Rogoff, 179)

Example: Ancient Egypt

Example: Ancient Greece

Example: Ancient China
Women's Status in Agriculture Life
-Farming to wage work(from father to mother)
-Children spent most of time at school
-Divorce increased, mother-only families increased
-Demographic changes in U.S. are tied to male and female occupational roles, realms of power, and social relations.
Recent Socio-historical Changes in U.S. Mother and Father Roles
Question: Do you see these shifts in gender roles
happening in your experience?
Gender Activity
Video clip:
Activity: In same groups, talk about stereotypes of men and women in other cultures.
Half the Sky
Short clip from ABC News
What is attractive in a mate?

Two Theories (Matsu., p.361)
1. Evolutionary Theory
2. Social Construction perspective or theory
What is love?

I. Passionate Love (p. 363):
1. Protective intimacy
2. Tender intimacy
3. Realistic closeness
4. Idealistic closeness
II. Friendship-oriented love

Is love universal?
Culture and Love
Culture and Marriage:
Cigdem Altun
Elham Hoominfar
Jianyu Li
Chelsea Van Eck
Sex: Biological & physiological differences
Sex roles: behaviors and patterns of activities engaged with based on biological differences
Sexual identity: Degree of individual's awareness and recognition of sex/sex roles

How many sexes?
2: Male and female (Matsu.)
3: Male, female and intersexed
-Prevalence estimates depend on def. of intersex employed--ranges from 0.018 – 1.7% of human births (Sax 2002)
-Get into 3 groups
-Follow prompt on card (3-4 mins)
-Send a group representative to the board to write your list
Gender Bender: Additional Genders?
Example of the Fa'afafine
(Thank you Nick!)
Cultural expectations of marriage:
-Romantic attachment in the role of marriage
-Individualistic cultures were more likely to rate love as essential to the establishment to marriage and to agree that the disappearance of love is a sufficient reason to end a marriage.
What other functions does marriage serve?
Marriage and culture:
Other types of marriage recognized in the world:

Polygyny: Man has more than one wife at the same time (Kottak, 2009).
-Favored in about 80-85% of the world’s societies (Haviland et al 2008.)

Polyandry: Woman has more than one husband at the same time
-found in less than 1% of the world’s societies (Tibet, Nepal and India) (Ferraro, 2008). In a society where travel and commerce is expected of the husband, it ensures that at least one is at home (Kottak, 2009).
Who is a suitable partner?
Marriage continued...
Literally means ‘in the manner of a woman.’
In Samoa, people with male genitalia live as women if they want to, without, or at least with little, social ostracism.
The fa’afafine were accepted as an alternative gender and allowed to live as women.
A fa’afafine does not have to call themselves a man or a woman; they are allowed to live as they wish.
With increasing Western influence, the Fa'afafine are now beginning to experience some of the isolation and confusion that Western transpeople experience.
-Anthropology course by Dr. Mair Underwood, University of Queensland
(Thank you Brett for introducing me!)
Full transcript