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Transcript of Composition
In visual arts including cinematography,
is a technique used to focus the viewer's attention upon the subject.
Framing can make an image more aesthetically pleasing and keep the viewer's focus on the framed object(s). It can also be used as a repoussoir, to direct attention back into the scene. It can add depth to an image, and can add interest to the picture when the frame is thematically related to the object being framed.
The frame of an image is determined by many factors, including:
Depth of field
- the range of focus within the image
- the empty space surrounding the subject
Color and lighting
Framing often refers to the placement of the subject in relation to other objects in the image.
A very popular framing technique is vignetting which is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation at the periphery compared to the image center.
Rule of Thirds
The rule of thirds is a "rule of thumb" or guideline which applies to the process of composing visual images such as designs, films, paintings, and photographs. The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would.
Depth of field
deep and shallow focus, focus pulls.
The focus pull (AKA rack focus) is a creative camera technique in which you change focus during a shot. Usually this means adjusting the focus from one subject to another.
The focus pull is useful for directing the viewer's attention. For example, if there are two people in shot but only one is in focus, that person is the subject of attention. If the focus changes to the other person, they become the subject. This is often used in drama dialogues — the focus shifts backwards and forwards between the people speaking. A slightly more subtle trick is to focus on a person speaking then pull focus to another person's silent reaction.
Focus Throw / Defocus
Throwing focus usually means dropping focus completely. This can either refer to certain parts of the picture (e.g. the background) or to the entire picture.
Throwing focus on part of a picture can't normally be done during a shot — it requires making adjustments such as changing filter or adding shutter.
Throwing focus on the whole picture can be done at any time simply by turning the focus ring until focus is completely lost. This can be used as an opening/closing shot or as a transition between shots. It can also be used for various effects, such as a point of view shot from someone who is drunk or groggy.
In this age of digital editing, focus-throwing for effect is more commonly achieved in post-production. This adheres to the general guideline that it's safer to record pictures "dry" (without effects) and add effects later.