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Georges Seurat: Pointalism

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C. Emmott

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Georges Seurat: Pointalism

Georges Seurat

Pointallism

George Seurat
Born: December 2nd, 1859
Died: March 29th,1891)
He was a French
Post-Impressionist painter
and draftsman.

Pointillism is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color
are applied in patterns to form an image.
Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886, branching from
Impressionism.
The term Pointillism was first coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the
works of these artists, and is now used without its earlier mocking connotation.
Neo-impressionism and Divisionism are also terms used to describe this
unique technique of painting using only dots of colour
.
So what is Pointallism and why are we learning about Georges?
This here is an example of Pointallism. This is a small detail from Seurat's La Parade de Cirque (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism.

Which other artist paints using this same type of style only with lines instead of dots?
Artist is: Vincent Van Gogh
Compare their art work!
**Can you see the difference between the
use of lines in Van Gogh's Starry Night
and Seurat's La Parade de Cirque?
Seurat was born into a wealthy family in Paris, France.
His father, Antoine Chrysostome Seurat, was a legal official
and a native of Champagne; his mother, Ernestine Faivre,
was Parisian.
Early Life of Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat first studied art with Justin Lequien, a sculptor. Seurat attended the École des Beaux-Arts in 1878 and 1879. After a year of service at Brest Military Academy, he returned to Paris in 1880. He shared a small studio on the Left Bank with two student friends before moving to a studio of his own. For the next two years, he worked at mastering the art of black-and-white drawing. He spent 1883 on his first major painting—a huge canvas titled Bathers at Asnières.
Georges Seurat's Bathers at Asnieres (1884) Oil on Canvas
Located in the National Gallery of London.
After his painting was rejected by the Paris Salon, Seurat turned away from such establishments, instead allying with the independent artists of Paris. In 1884, he and other artists formed the Société des Artistes Indépendants. There he met and befriended fellow artist Paul Signac.
Seurat shared his new ideas about pointillism with Signac, who subsequently painted in the same idiom. In the summer of 1884, Seurat began work on his masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, which took him two years to complete
Bathers at Asnières is the first of his two masterpieces on the monumental scale. The canvas is of a suburban, but placid Parisian riverside scene. Isolated figures, with their clothes piled sculpturally on the riverbank, together with trees, austere boundary walls and buildings, and the River Seine are presented in a formal layout. A combination of complex brushstroke techniques, and a meticulous application of contemporary colour theory bring to the composition a sense of gentle vibrancy and timelessness.

Seurat completed the painting of Bathers at Asnières in 1884, when he was twenty-four years old. He applied to the jury of the Salon of the same year to have the work exhibited there, but the jury rejected it. The Bathers continued to puzzle many of Seurat’s contemporaries, and the picture was not widely acclaimed until many years after the death of the artist at the age of just thirty-one. An appreciation of the painting’s merits grew during the twentieth century, and today it hangs in the National Gallery, London, where it is considered one of the highlights of the gallery’s collection of paintings.
Early Science Influences Seurat's Artistic Style!
During the 19th century, scientist-writers such as Michel Eugène Chevreul, wrote treatises on color, optical effects and perception. He adapted the scientific research of Helmholtz and Newton into a written form that was understandable by laypeople. Artists like Seurat followed new discoveries in perception with great interest. Chevreul was perhaps the most important influence on artists at the time because his great contribution was producing a color wheel of primary and intermediary hues.
Seurat took to heart the color theorists' notion of a scientific approach to painting. Seurat believed that a painter could use color to create harmony and emotion in art in the same way that a musician uses counterpoint and variation to create harmony in music. Seurat theorized that the scientific application of color was like any other natural law, and he was driven to prove this conjecture. He thought that the knowledge of perception and optical laws could be used to create a new language of art based on its own set of heuristics and he set out to show this language using lines, color intensity and color schema. Seurat called this language
Ch
ro
mo
lu
mi
na
rism.
The Most Scientific Painter of his Time!
Chevreul was a French chemist who restored old tapestries. During his restorations of tapestries, he noticed that the only way to restore a section properly was to take into account the influence of the colors around the missing wool; he could not produce the right hue unless he recognized the surrounding dyes.
Chevreul discovered that two colors juxtaposed, slightly overlapping or very close together, would have the effect of another color when seen from a distance. The discovery of this phenomenon became the basis for the pointillist technique of the Neoimpressionist painters.
Georges Seurat says "Art is Harmony. Harmony is the analogy of the contrary and of similar elements of tone, of color and of line, considered according to their dominance and under the influence of light, in gay, calm or sad combinations". (Seurat's letter to Maurice Beaubourg in 1890).

Seurat's theories can be summarized as follows: The emotion of gaiety can be achieved by the domination of luminous hues, by the predominance of warm colors, and by the use of lines directed upward. Calm is achieved through an equivalence/balance of the use of the light and the dark, by the balance of warm and cold colors, and by lines that are horizontal. Sadness is achieved by using dark and cold colors and by lines pointing downward.
Words from the Artist
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte shows members of each of the social classes participating in various park activities. The tiny juxtaposed dots of multi-colored paint allow the viewer's eye to blend colors optically, rather than having the colors physically blended on the canvas. It took Seurat two years to complete this 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) painting, much of which he spent in the park sketching in preparation for the work (there are about 60 studies). It is now in the permanent collection of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Seurat made several studies (Rough Drafts are important) for the large painting including a smaller version, Study for A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884–1885), that is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City.
[
Georges Greatest Work (and I do mean great)
The End of Seurat's Life
Later he moved from the Boulevard de Clichy to a quieter studio nearby, where he lived secretly with a young model, Madeleine Knobloch, whom he portrayed in his painting "Jeune femme se poudrant". In February 1890, she gave birth to their son, who was named Pierre Georges.

Seurat died in Paris on 29 March 1891 at the age of 31. The cause of Seurat's death is uncertain, and has been attributed to a form of meningitis, pneumonia, infectious angina, and/or (most probably) diphtheria. His son died two weeks later from the same disease.[2] His last ambitious work, The Circus, was left unfinished at the time of his death.
More about this work
Georges Seurat spent over two years painting A Sunday Afternoon, focusing meticulously on the landscape of the park. He reworked the original as well as completed numerous preliminary drawings and oil sketches. He would go and sit in the park and make numerous sketches of the various figures in order to perfect their form. He concentrated on the issues of colour, light, and form. The painting is approximately 2 by 3 meters (6 ft 10 in x 10 ft 1 in) in size.

Motivated by study in optical and colour theory, Seurat contrasted miniature dots of colors that, through optical unification, form a single hue in the viewer's eye. He believed that this form of painting, called divisionism at the time but now known as pointillism, would make the colors more brilliant and powerful than standard brush strokes. The use of dots of almost uniform size came in the second year of his work on the painting, 1885-86. To make the experience of the painting even more vivid, he surrounded it with a frame of painted dots, which in turn he enclosed with a pure white, wooden frame, which is how the painting is exhibited today at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Using the word Hypor, create a product and design an advertisement to sell the product you have created
The product should be something that is related or recognizable to the name Hypor
What is the Scientific significance of this word?
The name should be displayed on the advertisement as well as a picture of the product
A slogan should be created as well as prominently displayed in the ad
The medium used in this artwork will be marker and pencil crayon
The style of the work will be created using Seurat's Pointallism (you are only using dots to create this artwork)
Review previous examples and critique
Review the rubric to see where to focus your efforts on this project
Grade 6 Assignment:
Design a Produce and Advertisement for
HYPOR
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