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Imperialism

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by

Meaghan Young

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of Imperialism

Imperialism
Book definition:
"The economic and political domination of a strong nation over a weaker nation."

**Are there problems with this definition?**
What is
Imperialism
?!
(This is a silly comment. Imperialism is a world wide phenomenon)
"America is the only Imperialistic Country in the History of the World ."
A. Commodore Perry
B. Hawaii
C. Pan Americanism
D. Alfred Thayer Mahan
E. Henry Cabot Lodge
Early Imperialism
Began during the Spanish-American War
Named after
The Yellow Kid
, a popular cartoon character that ran in the
New York World
(created by R.F. Outcault)
The Yellow Kid
pointed out serious problems with tenement life & class divisions at first; later turned into fantasy
Yellow
Journalism: what is it?!
"Go take it, and keep it."
Ex: British Colonization
America and Hawaii
Some imperialistic behavior by countries other than the US
British Empire in Africa
Soviet Union in the Eastern Block
France in Vietnam
Spain in Cuba, Philippines, and Puerto Rico
Mexico
,
Texas
, and
Imperialism
"But they were here first"
"America has a right to defend its borders; it's really no different than protecting your house from burglars"
"Imperialism is simply a matter of fact. There really isn't much you can do to stop it"

A. Commodore Perry
July 8, 1853:
Matthew Perry sails into Tokyo harbor with a squadron of ships on behalf of the US govt. &
forces
Japan to enter trade with America.

Demands
a treaty allowing trade and the opening of Japanese ports to US merchant ships.
It was clear that Perry could impose his demands by force
Japan had no navy to defend themselves and thus had to agree to his terms
**The Japanese never allow themselves to be put into such a position again!!**
Why?!
Trade for Eastern goods
United States needed ports to replenish coal and supplies for the commercial whaling fleet
Fair treatment for shipwrecked sailors from America
B. Hawaii

Strategic trade route and coaling station for ships to Asia ("Crossroads of the Pacific")
Led to settlers who later pushed for Hawaiin statehood
Struggle between white American businessmen and native Hawaiins for control of Hawaii govt.

Queen Liliukalani led a charge to regain royal power

Hawaii annexed by US in 1898
Attempted Overthrow of Hawaii
C. Pan Americanism
Secretary of State James G. Blaine wanted the Western Hemisphere to work together.

Why?

"
First
, to bring about peace and prevent futile wars in North and South America;
second
, to cultivate such friendly commercial ties with all American countries as would lead to a large increase in the export trade of the United States"
1889: Pan American Conference held in Wash. D. C.
Helped create free trade
An early NAFTA
D. Alfred Thayer Mahan
"The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660 - 1783"
importance of naval power as a factor in the rise of the British Empire
British control of the seas + decline in naval strength of European rivals = Great Britain with dominant:
military
,
political
and
economic
power
How does his book apply to United States foreign policy?
1. You have to have a large naval fleet to be important
2. You need to have a modern Navy
3. You need bases around the world
He believed the U.S. economy would soon be unable to handle the HUGE amounts of industrial and commercial goods being produced domestically
argued that the United States should seek markets
abroad
3 things U.S. govt. needed to guarantee access to international markets:

1.
Merchant navy
: to carry American products to new markets
2.
Battleship navy
: to deter or destroy rival fleets
3.
Network of naval bases
: to provide fuel and supplies for larger navy and communication between U.S. and its new markets
E. Henry Cabot Lodge
American
Senator who supported Mahan

He firmly believed that the U.S. deserved a prominent role in international diplomacy

How so?

By ongoing development of army and navy (idea that military strength = more diplomatic power
Yellow Journalism:
"type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers."
New York World vs. New York Journal
Joseph Pulitzer owned the
New York World

William Randolph Hearst owned the
New York Journal
Both were battling for readers

Yellow kid papers/ yellow kid journalism --> shortened to yellow journalism
What did they do?
To attract more readers (which = more $$$), the papers began using outrageous tactics
They would report
only
the most sensational sides of stories [heavy doses of murder, sex, and scandal]
The papers played a
LARGE
role in influencing public opinion
Muckraking vs. Yellow Journalism
Muckraking
:
Used to jump start political intervention
Pointed out bad conditions
Achieved a positive result with legislation to improve conditions
Yellow Journalism
:
Used to attract readers
Writers used a "shock value" to attract readers to their paper
Influenced public opinion
**There is a very fine line between the two**
Yellow Journalism
:

Still going strong 100 years later
Problems in Modern Journalism
Naming unnamed sources
Using leads from other news sources
Late breaking stories
Leaving out the facts

LATE BREAKING NEWS:
This
just
in, we have received reports of an alleged incident in the vicinity of...!!!

According to unidentified sources, new developments have surfaced in the area!!!
FOX
News vs.
CNN
News
Journalistic Bias

Right Wing vs. Left Wing

Is this what Journalism is supposed to be about?
Write Your Own Headline!!!
Write the name of a paper
Write a "Yellow" Headline
Explain your headline
Spanish American War
Precursor to war:
By 1890 - the
Spanish Empire
was reduced to
Cuba
, the
Philippines
,
Puerto Rico
and a few small islands
Cuban exiles led by
Jose Marti

returned home and declared Cuban independence
Spain sent an army to crush the rebellion and used brutal methods to repress the uprising
Battle of El Caney and San Juan Hill
On July 1 a combined force of about 15,000 American troops in regular infantry, cavalry and volunteer regiments, including
Roosevelt
and his "Rough Riders," and rebel Cuban forces attacked 1,270 entrenched Spaniards in dangerous frontal assaults at the
Battle of El Caney
and
Battle of San Juan Hill
outside of Santiago. More than 200 U.S. soldiers were killed and close to 1,200 wounded in the fighting. The Spaniards suffered less than half the number of casualties. Supporting fire by
Gatling guns
was critical to the success of the assault . It was then that Cervera decided to escape Santiago two days later.
Rough Riders
Segregation in the U.S. military: 10th cavalry (1/4 of U.S. soldiers fighting in Cuba were black)
U.S. newspapers sensationalized the news (
yellow journalism
) depicting Spaniards as murderous brutes in order to sell more papers
Americans had an inaccurate picture of events in Cuba

Americans were concerned with protecting their investments and trade with Cuba (sugar + tobacco)
Americans were sympathetic to the cause of independence against a colonial power
"Remember the Maine!"
Philippines
Puerto Rico
Remember the
Monroe Doctrine
?
"Further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention."

Spanish Empire threatened Pan-Americanism
Spanish defeated in 4 months "Splendid Little War"
Treaty of Paris
ends the war (1898)
The U.S. annexed former Spanish colonies of
Puerto Rico
, the
Philippines
, and
Guam
The idea of the U.S. as an imperial power with foreign colonies was a
hot
topic domestically
The American public largely supported the possession of colonies...but there were many outspoken critics
There were Spanish Warships there --> the U.S. wanted to make sure they stayed there and didn't go to Cuba, so we attacked them.
We stayed after the war though, much to the dismay of the people of the Philippines
U.S. did not leave until 1992 when they were ordered to leave their base at Subic Bay
F
Reason for U.S. interest in Puerto Rico:
economic
and
military
Outlet for excess manufactured goods
Key naval station in the Caribbean

US troops landed in Cuba in June, and on July 17, 1898 they destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed in Santiago de Cuba Bay
Platt Amendment
Approved on May 22, 1903
Treaty between
U.S.
and
Cuba
:
It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence
attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention
Allowed the United States to lease or buy lands for establishing naval bases (like Guantanamo Bay) and coaling stations in Cuba
Imperialism means we are gonna take it and we are gonna keep it!!
Full transcript