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Medieval Europe

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Luke O'Neil

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Medieval Europe

Reconquista The Reconquista, or reconquest , was the taking over of the Iberian Penisula by the Christians. Up until the reconquista the Muslims controlled what is now Spain and Portugal. Civil war broke out between the Muslim rulers in the Iberian Penisula. The small Christian kingdoms on the northern side of the Penisula took advantage of their enemy's weak state and embarked on the Reconquista. The Christians pushed the Muslims out of the area entirely without many defeats. Johann Gutenburg Johann Gutenburg was born in
Germany in 1398. He is credited
with creating the first printing press. However, he was taken advantage of by his business associates and died in poverty. The printing press allowed for books, mainly the bible, to be mass produced and spread. This led to an
increase in literacy, and a decrease in prices, allowing more people to have access to books. Sales
were increased even more because of the
translation of Greek and Latin to vernacular
languages. William the Conquerer William was born in Normandy in 1028. He
was the illegitimate son of the Duke of Normandy, Robert I, and was referred to as William the bastard. When he grew older he defeated the King of England at the Battle of Hastings, after competing for the throne. As the king, William continued to strengthen his borders and crush rebellion. He also created the "Domesday Book," which was the compilation of a survey to further add to his power. When William finally died, he gave England to one son, and Normandy to the other. Thomas Aquinas Thomas was born in Italy in 1225. He was raised by Benedictine Monks until he was 13, and studied the works of Aristotle. He later became a member of the Dominican Order, infuriating his family, but allowing him to spread his work, and later be posthumously canonized. Thomas Aquinas helped to connect reason with
the church. This led to a decrease in the church's
power because science could explain some
events, leading to the beginning of the
Renaissance. Without his teachings, much of
the world would still be plagued with the
ignorance, oppression, and poverty
which characterized the middle
ages. Geoffrey Chaucer Black Death The Black Death was an epidemic of disease across Europe and China from 134-1351. There were two forms of the Black Death; the bubonic plague, which was spread from rats and fleas. And the Pneumonic Plague, which was spread through the air. The Black Death created extreme chaos in Europe and China. The Manorial System collapsed. Both Europe and China lost one -third of their entire population. Anti-Semitic feelings rose. Many believed that the plague was "a punishment from God". Guilds Guilds were craftspeople who organized themselves to protect their interests. All members of the guild had the same occupation. The main goal of the guild was to eliminate competition. They achieved this by setting standards and prices for all of their products. These standards and prices insured quality control and mutual protection. Guilds trained children to a specific craft until a certain age. These children were called apprentices. After learning the basic skill of a craft the apprentice becomes a journeyman and travels from village to village learning his craft from different masters. 3rd Crusade This crusade was fought from 1189 to 1192. It began when Saladin threw the Christians out of the Holy Lands. This Crusade ended in a draw and a treaty between Saladin and Richard the Lionhearted. The 3rd Crusade's main goal to take back Jerusalem was a failure. However, the Christians took cities in the East that will become footholds in the upcoming crusades. From these areas in the East, the crusaders brought home new valuables like salt and silk. The treaty that ended the Third Crusade allowed pilgrims to enter the Holy Lands. Saladin
(Salah al-Din Yusuf) Saladin was born in 1137. He was the Muslim Leader and enemy of the English Crusaders during the Third Crusade. He overthrew the Muslim leader prior to him just thirty years after the Second Crusade. When in power, Saladin united all of the Muslim world under one ruler. As ruler was able to drive the Christians out of the Holy Lands. This started the Third Crusade, and brought Richard the Lionhearted to the Holy Lands. When Richard became ill, Saladin sent gifts of fruit and his best doctors to help his enemy. Frederick Barbossa The German king, known as Red-Beard, who unified the nobles in the region under one ruler. He came to the throne in 1152. In 1187, he raised an army of 150,000 for the Third Crusade.Because he united the germanic nobles, his death created much grief in German Provinces. He died trying to cross a river on his horse. he fell in the river and drowned. Richard the Lionhearted Richard was born 1157. He was the third son of King Henry II. His mother was Eleanor of Aquintaine. Richard the Lionhearted got his name from the French for his bravery. He is well known for his military leadership and knightly behavior. Richard was the only European leader to actually fight in the Holy Lands. Sadly he died without his wife bearing a child, so the throne of England went to his brother, John. Enemies in the 3rd Crusade Allies in the 3rd Crusade Nevsky Alexander Nevsky was the Prince of Novgorod and Kiev. Alexander Nevsky managed to stop the Swedes and the Teutonic knights from advancing on Russia. Alexander developed a spiritual life from his mother, known as the 'Holy Queen', because of her piety. Nevsky also created peace between the mongols and Novgorod by paying a tribute. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in Great Britain in 1343. He became a prominent writer who dealt with class relations accurately, and wrote the Canterbury Tales. The Canterbury tales detail the pilgrimage of citizens to Canterbury. Chaucer's works give insight to the life of people in the 14th century. His book also sheds light on social change, religious controversies and gender expectations. Robin Hood Magna Carta In the early 1200's the king's power started to worry
some of the nobility. Finally, in 1215 after King John tried to raise taxes, the nobles rebelled. This led to the nobles forcing King John into signing the Magna Carta. This document lowered the power of the king, and
took away many unjust privileges that the king possessed. The Magna Carta even suggested that the king was not above the law. This made the first move towards modern democracies. War of Roses The War of Roses was a conflict between the
Lancastrians and the Yorkists. Both laid claim to the throne and war ensued. The Lancastrians used a red rose as their symbol, and the Yorkists used a white rose as their symbol, hence the War of Roses. At first the Yorkists were successful, but after the death of Edward IV, fighting resumed, and King Richard III was killed. Finally, Henry Tudor (VII) took power and married Elizabeth of York. He was related to the Lancastrians by blood, and the marriage signified unity and ended the war. This led to the Tudor Dynasty. Vlad Tepes Vlad Dracula was a 15th century prince of Wallachia. He had strict regimes and sought to eliminate crime. He is referred to as Vlad the Impaler because of his infamous torture method. Vlad III helped to fend off the Turks and made Wallachia independent for a short time until his death. He also eliminated the old corrupt upper
class that used assassination as a political tool.
Finally, he held chastity and honesty in highest
regards. Cheaters or adulterers were impaled
the same as common robbers. 100 Year's War The hundred year's war was a 116 conflict between
England and France from 1337-1453. It was caused by a discrepancy over who the rightful heir to the French throne was, and plunged England and France into chaos. This war helped to develop better siege technologies, and utilized paid mercenaries as weapons. This led to an increase in taxes for both nation. The hundred year's war finally ended with the surrender of Bordeaux to the French. Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine was both the queen of England and France. Firstly, she married King Louis VII of France, and after a divorce, married King Henry II of England. As the queen, Eleanor was very involved in politics, which was uncommon for women at the time. She also participated in fighting, helping the wounded and boosting moral. This helped lead to a changing of gender stereotypes for what women could do. Interestingly enough, she was also the mother of Richard the Lionhearted and John(Robin Hood). William Tell William Tell is a legendary Swiss folk hero with amazing archery skills. William fought for liberty and killed the ruler of the land-Gressler, an Austrian overlord. When William Tell refused to bow down to the overlord's hat, he was arrested. As punishment William was to shoot an apple off his son's head from eighty paces away. William completed this task without harming his son. Gressler refused to free him, and William killed the Austrian tyrant. Folk Hero Archers Jan Hus
(John Hus) Jan Hus was born in Husinec, Bohemia for which he got his name. Jan was a priest and a teacher. Jan Hus was a reformer that 'built' a bridge from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. He was most famous for denouncing the Church in his sermons. He was later convicted of heresy and was burned at the stake. Common Law Common law originated in Germanic
tribes living in Europe. These were unwritten
laws that were flexible, and could be bent to benefit the rich.

After the Magna Carta was signed, citizens were allowed to demand Common Law hearing which benefited them because the king could not change the laws. Also, this competed with equity hearings were people petitioned the
king. This has led to many judicial systems
including the American judicial system
with a jury of peers. Cyril and Methodius Cyril and Methodius were born in Thessalonica, and were part of a prominent Christian family. They learned Slavonic and
Methodius became a monk, while Cyril became known as "The Philosopher." Both the brothers eventually became missionaries
and Cyril worked on translating parts of Latin
mass into the vernacular after journeying to
Morovia. After the death of Cyril, Methodius
was asked by a Slavic Prince, Kocel, to help
translate more Latin. Methodious was
promoted to a Bishop and was imprisoned by
Germans, for infringing on their authority. He
was later released and is believed to have translated
most of the bible into Slavonic. Cistercian Order The Cistercian order was an offshoot of monks who
wished to follow St. Benedict's rule more strictly.
They are characterized by manual labor, an aversion to bloodshed, and white habits. The first abbot was Robert of Molesme, who abandoned his monastery to found the Cistercians. He was eventually ordered by Pope Urban II to return to his old monastery and Alberic of Citeaux took power. The order was self sustaining and survived primarily on agriculture and breweries. The Cistercian Order still survives today. Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League was a trade group made up of Northern German citites. These towns helped to protect each other and promote trade. This group controlled most of the trade between Europe, Russia and
the Baltic Region. The league provided a safe route and helped these cities and their economy to grow. This rivaled the massive Italian trade group. Parliament Parliament was a council of the king's closest advisors. It later expanded to barons and representatives of villages(usually the clergy). Parliament was haphazardly created to control and manage the taxes of the kings subjects. It started out as a few high officials then the council had to expand to cover all of the territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Donatello Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi was born in 1386. He was the son of Nicolo di Betto Bardi, a wool merchant in Florence, Italy. Donatello was more than a ninja turtle. he was an Italian sculpture who's art lead the way to the Renaissance. One of his famous sculptures is David. Through David, Donatello has softened the static balance and firm stance of the traditional male figure. Petrarch Francesco was born in 1304 in Arezzo near Florence , Italy. He is known as the Father of Humanism. Petrarch lost his life and his family because of the Black Plague. Petrarch was a writer and a poet, and the first man to perfect sonnet. He wrote poems and sonnets to his inspiration Laura. *No one knows who she is because Petrarch was a man of the church and wasn't allowed to marry.* He criticized scholasticism, the dominant method of learning in the "schools" or universities, as arid and useless, focusing too much on hair-spitting logic and on abstract and abstruse subjects. His writings would come to inspire many other poets in the future like William Shakespeare. BRIDGE TO THE RENAISSANCE THE THIRD CRUSADE Robert the Bruce Robert was born on 11 July 1274 into an aristocratic Scottish family. He is known as the greatest Scottish King. One of his most famous victories is his victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Scottish forces under King Robert I the Bruce defeated English King Edward II, in the pivotal event of the wars of Scottish independence. The little force that Robert commanded fought offensively the entire battle, a tactic that had not been used with his army. Gradually Robert and his forces gained the upper hand and were able to make the English retreat. India: Medieval Times The Middle Ages in India was an era of great change and reformation- much like Europe's Renaissance. The Medieval Times in India started with the Turks invading and spreading culture. The famous Caste System of India started to show development of the feudal system. With the invasion of the Turks, cultures began to blend. The religions of Islam and Hinduism came together and influenced everyday life, much like that of Christianity and the Church. Monarchies from the Byzantine Empire (Part 1) Theodosius I The Great was the first king of the Byzantine Empire. He was born in Spain and became governor of Moesia in 375. As emperor Theodosius managed to come to a settlement with the Goths who were trying to invade the Byzantine Empire. Under the agreement the Goths were permitted to live in Thrace, within the Empire, if they served the crown during war. The Eastern Empire was strengthened with the creation of separate military commands reporting directly to the Emperor. This prevented one individual from overthrowing the king. Monarchies from the Byzantine Empire (Part 2) Theodosius II was born to the eastern emperor Arcadius and the empress Aelia Eudoxia in April of 401. He was the fourth oldest, after three sisters. Theodosius was baptized and crowned Augustus in January of the following year to enthusiastic crowds The most outstanding feature of this king's reign was the Theodosian Code. The Theodosian Code was a compilation of Roman Law authorized by Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II in the fifth century. The code was intended to streamline and organize the complicated body of imperial laws promulgated since the reign of Emperor Constantine in 312 C.E., but it included laws from much further back, as well. This written document would go on to inspire another king- Justinian I. Monarchs from the Holy Roman Empire (Part 1) Donatello Donatello was Born in 1386
Florence, Italy. He was a sculpture that
through his art, lead the way to the Renaissance. One of his most famous sculptures was David. Through David, Donatello has softened the static balance and firm stance of the traditional male figure. It is well known that David was a symbol of the Florentine Republic, which like the Old Testament youth stood up to its rivals. Petrarch In Roman Catholic Europe many of the ideas of ancient Greece and Rome were not likely to be accepted unless they could be reconciled with the Christian faith, and Petrarch did so in his writings. He wrote (and perfected) sonnets. His most famous sonnets were about a woman named Laura. Petrarch's sonnets and themes will go on to inspire more poets, like William Shakespeare. Petrarch was born in 1304 in Arezzo, Italy. He studied law but was much more interested in Latin literature and in creative writing. He lost all of his family and his own life to the Black Death. Jan Hus
(John Hus) Jan Hus was born in 1370, Husinec, Bohemia [now in Czech Republic]. In 1400 he was ordained as a priest. Jan Hus realized how corrupt the Church had become. He denounced the Church in his sermons and at public speakings. Later the Church convicted him of Heresy, and he was burned at the stake. Otto the Great was successful in creating the Holy Roman Empire out of different territories. In order to unify and control the major territories of Germany, he established the Church-State Alliance; this strengthened his power and decreased the power of the duchies. It was successful for both the Church and the State because it had church officials ruling the land, but allowed Otto the power to appoint them. Otto the Great, or Otto I, was born on November 23, 912. Otto was the eldest son of King Henry I the Fowler and inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans when his father died. Monarchies of the Holy Roman Empire (Part 2) Henry was born on 1 October 1207 in Winchester, the son of John. He was only nine years old when his father died and he took the throne. Henry was charitable and cultured, he lacked the ability to rule effectively. In diplomatic and military affairs he proved to be arrogant yet cowardly, ambitious yet impractical. This caused conflict between him and many of the barons. The barons were able to create their own advisers that had influence over Henry. Medieval Europe Connection to King John Joan of Arc In 1412 Joan of Arc was
born in Domremy in France.
Her parents were highly rel-
igious and she claimed to
hear angels talking to her. This,
combined with her courage helped
to change the outcome of the 100
years war. Joan told Charles VII that she had been told by an angel to drive out the English in the Orleans. She was sent to the siege and helped to raise the morale
of the soldiers, and ultimately won several
battles for the French. She was later cap-
tured and burned as a heretic. Marco Polo Travels.... Travels... Marco Polo Kublai Kahn John Wycliffe -John was born in 1324 in Yorkshire, England. Wycliffe showed an interest in natural science and mathematics, but applied himself to the study of theology, ecclesiastical law, and philosophy.

~He was the first man of his century to revive the doctrine of justification by faith alone. He denounced the Church by preaching on the ideals of Christian poverty, and that the church should not concern itself with worldly matters. His loyal followers became known as Lollards, and kept denouncing the Church long after his death on December 31, 1384. Church Architecture ~It was believed that the more splendid the architecture, the more the church believed it was praising God. The churches were built taller and brighter in the Late Medieval Times and early Renaissance.

~ During the later Middle Ages, the Churches were built with a new Gothic style. Flying buttresses supported a church’s walls from the outside, allowing much higher ceilings and there was no need for columns on the inside for support. The larger windows made it possible to use stained glass for a greater effect inside the church. Charlemagne ~Charlemagne was born in the late 740s near Liège in modern day Belgium, the son of the Frankish king. When his father died, he ruled with his older brother. When his older brother suddenly died, Charlemagne was the only King.

~ Charlemagne embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. In 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans. In this role, he encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance, a cultural and intellectual revival in Europe. He had also ensured the survival of Christianity in the West. Technology ~Agricultural innovations during the Middle Ages were a lasting impact on the survival of millions of people. New technologies such as the wheelbarrow and the plow improved farming and allowed more crops to be harvested.
~The wheelbarrow helped with farmers carrying several times their own weight. The plow could now be hooked up to multiple oxen and reach deeper in the soil. This allowed more crops to be harvested and the population of Northern Europe to gradually increase. Benedictine Rule The Rule of Benedict (RB) constitutes a basic guide for living the Christian life. The Rule offers people a plan for living a balanced, simple, and prayerful life.

~There are three vows of the Benedictine Rule: stability, conversion and obedience. Stability refers to the importance of community and commitment in life. Conversion is not confined to a one time experience(not living in the past). Obedience can entail a healthy sense of humility - not thinking less or more of yourself than who you are - and of respecting the guides, leaders, teachers, and fellow travelers who are guiding you on your path. The Inquisition ~The Inquisition was an order to trial those who were committed of heresy. The pope was alarmed by the spread of Albigensianism and sent stringent directions as to how to deal the heretics. Friars would go around Europe conducting trials.
~Most trials of the Inquisition were found to be guilty. Punishments such as paying a fine, penance, and imprisonment were common. Burning at the stake was thought to be a reasonable punishment. A verdict of guilty also meant the confiscation of property by the civil ruler, who might turn over part of it to the church. New Invaders: Vikings ~The Vikings were fierce warriors that wanted to conquer Charlemagne's empire. They came from Norway, Sweden and Denmark, countries that we now call Scandinavia.

~The Vikings attacked lands near the sea without warning. By the tenth century, the Vikings controlled parts of Great Britain, France and Russia and even sailed to Egypt. Leif Ericson even got to North America. There, he founded a village in today's Newfoundland and called it "Vinland" because it was so warm that you could grow grapes there. New Invaders: Magyars ~The Magyars, a nomadic people from east of the Danube. They conducted a series of incursions deep into western Europe.

~Their purpose was to plunder rather than to occupy or settle. Their mode of warfare was a fast moving mount of archers which made them difficult to pin down. But as light cavalry they were no match for the heavy cavalry, walled towns and fortresses which were developed to defeat them. Pope vs. Emperor Henry IV and Gregory VII
~A monk by the name of Hildebrand became Pope and changed his name to Gregory VII. Unlike the popes before him, he was not German. Henry IV was twenty-five at the time, and was a ruler that was in no mood to yield up any of his authority.
~When in power, Gregory VII declared that bishops cannot be put into power by one person but by the Church. Henry did not like that idea-his father had been able to dispose of unwanted bishops because they were German. Henry IV wanted Gregory VII out of power but Gregory VII refused seeing no point since he was not German. Pope Gregory VII responded to Henry IV by excommunicating him. Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant
who traveled through Asia with his
uncle and father. He also reportedly
met Kublai Kahn and worked for

Marco Polo was imprisoned on his
journey through Asia and his travels
were written down by a cellmate.
This helped to spread cultural ideas
and also gave insights into new tech-
nologies. Kublai Kahn was the fifth Great
Kahn and the grandson of Genghis
Kahn. He reigned from 1260-1294
and founded the Yuan Dynasty. Kublai Kahn established the Yuan
Dynasty in 1271. This ruled over
Mongolia, China, Korea and adjacent
areas. This allowed him to become
the first non-Chinese emperor to
conquer all of China.Thanks to
Marco Polo's book, Kublai Kahn's
achievement were spread around
and he is a well known
historical figure today. Thomas Becket(t) Thomas Becket was born in 1118 in London. He
later became the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Becket engaged in conflict with Henry II because
of discrepancies with rights of the church. This led
to his assassination in 1170 in the Canterbury Cathedral. He was canonized by Pope Alexander
III. Dante Erasmus ~ Dante was born in Florence May or June of 1265. His writings reflected Aristotle in its mingling of philosophical and theological language.

~ Dante wrote The Commedia which is concerned always with the ultimate, eternal destiny of human life. The Commedia speaks of purgatory, heaven, and hell. In the Commedia God assumes an active, transformative role as the dispenser of that grace without which the intellectual quest is futile. Erasmus was a Dutch priest, humanist, teacher and
theologian. He was born in 1466 and died in 1536.

His writings influenced the Reformation, and the church
later banned some of his works. However, he distanced
himself from other Reformers and remained a member of
church for his whole life. Filippo Brunelleschi William Wallace William Wallace was a Scottish landowner who helped to lead during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He was not born into nobility and little is known of his early life.

His most famous achievement is defeating the English army at the battle of Stirling Hill. The Scottish were greatly outnumbered, Wallace used the bridges narrowness and the river below as devastating weapons. He later was defeated at the Battle of Falkirk, and was executed by King Edward of England. The Reconquista ~The Reconquista, or recon quest, refers to the medieval Christian conquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moslem forces, who had invaded the area in 711. It was the kingdoms of the Northern part of the peninsula and other kingdoms in Europe versus the broken up states of the Moslems.
~After 1000, the Moslem caliphate of Cordoba began to break into several smaller states divided by warfare. This provided the opportunity for Christian forces to initiate the Reconquista. In 1212, Pope Innocent III proclaimed a full crusade against the Moors and the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the same year provided the Christians with a decisive victory from which the Moors never fully recovered. The legend of Robin Hood tells the tale of a green-clad thief who steals from the rich and gives to the poor. He resided in Sherwood Forest and his nemesis was the Sheriff of Nottingham. He lived during the time of Richard the Lionhearted and King John.

Robin Hood's actions were justified by the unjust taxes that king John instituted in Richard the Lionhearted's absence. Robin Hood also exposes King John to his brother, Richard, causing John to be exiled. Then King Richard the Lionhearted rights all the wrongs that his brother had committed.
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