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Ebola Virus

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liz a

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of Ebola Virus

Ebola Virus
Mortality & Morbidity
Ebola first appeared in 1976 in Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo, now known as Zaire.
Newest subtype found in November 27, 2007
Bundibugyo, Uganda (2007)
116 cases, MR = 34%
Democratic Republic of the Congo (2012)
15 cases, MR = 67%

Bundibugyo ebolavirus
Nausea and vomiting
Diarrhea (may be bloody)
Red eyes
Raised rash
Chest pain and cough
Stomach pain
Severe weight loss
Bleeding from the nose, mouth, rectum, eyes and ears

Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV)
Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV)
Reston ebolavirus (REBOV)
Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV)
Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV)
Types of Ebola viruses
Discovered in Chimpanzees Tai Forest on the Ivory Coast Africa in 1994.
Scientist became ill after conducting an autopsy on a wild chimpanzee in the Tai Forest.

1976, 284 people in Sudan also became infected with the virus and 156 died.

Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV)
Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV)
Reston ebolavirus (REBOV)
A pleomorphic, negative-sense RNA viruses that belong to the Filovirus family. It causes Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in people and animals.

Identified by the onset of early symptoms.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
Antigen detection tests
Serum neutralization tests
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (TY-PCR) assay
Virus isolation by cell culture
What is it?
Preventative Measures
Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus
Mortality rates for Ebola hemorrhagic fever are high, ranging from 50% to 90%
Incubation period:
Infectious Agent:
Ebola Virus
Chain of

Portal of Exit:
Bodily fluids, blood, fomite, infected medical equipment
Direct and
Indirect contact
Portal of Entry:
Mucus membrane, skin, openings
Susceptible Host:
Those who are in close contact with an infected person have increase risk.
2-21 days
Severe headache
Sore throat

Early signs:

Nurses must wear goggles, gloves, and masks.
Level 4 biohazard
No vaccine or antiviral med available.
Supportive therapy:
Balance of fluids & electrolytes
Oxygen status
Blood pressure
Treatment for other complicating infections
Late signs:
Discovered in Reston, Virginia in 1989
Monkeys shipped from Philippines
Pathogenic to primates, humans can be asymptomatic carriers.
No deaths or illnesses in humans reported up to date.

Discovered in 1976
Most lethal form, death can occur within days
Mortality rate = 88%
Average mr = 83% over 27 years

Unknown natural host
no programs to control the virus
Possibility of bats being reservoir
Fruit bats have antibodies against 2 types of Ebola strains.
But unable to isolate virus from bats
Can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person;
Result in high mortality rates and have the potential for major public health impact;
May cause public panic and social disruption; and
Require special action for public health preparednes.
Category A:
Immune Response
Ebola virus replicates at an
unusually high rate
that overwhelms the protein synthesis apparatus of infected cells and host immune defenses.

Virulence Factor
Thank you for listening!
Advancement in Vaccines
Remains top priority
Vaccine protects 80% of mice

Mechanism unknown
Involves heart, blood vessels, stomach, intestine, liver, lymphoid organs and kidneys.
Leads to organ failure.
transmembrane form of GP
of the ebola virus determines its pathogenesis.
The GP allows virus to empty its contents into monocytes/macrophages where the exposure to viral material causes
a release of cytokines
suppresses immune response by the
inhibition of neutrophil activation
Infection of hepatocytes- decrease production of clotting factor.
The host usually dies with no evidence of an immune response.
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