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Organizational, Political, and Personal Power

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by

Christina Shen

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Organizational, Political, and Personal Power

Organizational, Political, and Personal Power
Main Learning Objectives for Power
Our peers will......
understand and be able to differentiate different forms of power that are utilized.
understand how power is gained and how it is also maintained.
comprehend the positive and negative aspects of varying forms of power.

Facts about Power
it is derived from the word "
potere
" (to be able)

it is properly defined as
"that which enables one to accomplish goals" or "the capacity to act
or the strength and potency to accomplish something"
(Marquis and Houston, pg. 282).

power gives the potential to change attitudes and behaviors of attitudes

key successful components for leadership:
power
,
management
and
authority

power may be many things, but it is often misunderstood

it is often associated with the familial power experience one has with their own family and how they individually deal with certain situations
References:
Blanchfield, J., & Biodi, D. (1996). Power in practice: a study of nursing authority and autonomy. Nursing administration quarterly, 20(3), 42-49. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8710222.
Marquis, B.L. & Huston, C.J. (2012). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: theory and application. (7th edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/ Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Raven, B. H. (2008). The bases of power and the power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8(1), p. 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x
Trofino, J. (2003). Power sharing. a transformational strategy for nurse retention, effectiveness, and extra effort. Nursing Leadership Forum, 8(2), 64-71. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14997687.


by: christina shen, jenna salerno, sam kolke, and jen lukens
Does Power in The Hands of Men or Women Differ?
"some women have been known to hold negative

connotations of power and never learn to use power constructively" (Marquis and Houston, pg. 283).

women are also expected to show ambivalence towards the concept of power and shy away because women were socialized differently from men

in years past, women shied away from power

they did not believe they inherently possessed power
Power and The Powerless: The Epic Struggle
to observe power, one must observe those with the lack of power. it is easily agreed that a feeling of powerlessness is not enjoyable in any situation.

constant powerlessness

and a lack of control often leads to a poor leadership/ managerial style, which is typically boss, ineffective, petty and dictatorial.

it is said that power is likely to bring more power and powerlessness is likely to generate more powerlessness. why do you think this cycle occurs?
BUT don't worry all you future lady
power possessors
... the tides are changing!!!

women are changing their own point of views on power and how they view other women who acquire power

today,
gender
differences regarding power are fading


Are You Man Enough For The Power?
Positive or Negative?
Powerlessness
is disliked

Power is two faced:
Negatively: “I win, you lose”
Positively: exerting influence on
behalf rather than over

The way in which power is used and for what dictates whether viewed as good or bad

How to Maintain Power
Power to Empower
Significant differences in expectations for nursing staff and nursing management lead to power struggles

Power can empower nurses in their roles

Nursing management needs to aid in development of authority and
autonomy


Blanchfield, J., & Biodi, D. (1996). Power in practice: a study of nursing authority and autonomy. Nursing administration quarterly, 20(3), 42-49. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8710222
Power Sharing
Power sharing
includes:
Valuing staff contributions
promoting information sharing
exerting influence for a stable work environment

Strategies:
Acting as
role models
and
mentors
Energizing staff
Resisting attitudes of staff ownership,
Reducing staff nurse stress of leader presence
Information sharing and commendations at meetings.
Power Sharing Continued...
Results of Power sharing:

Satisfaction increased

Effectiveness of care

Extra effort

Higher retention
Trofino, J. (2003). Power sharing. a transformational strategy for nurse retention, effectiveness, and extra effort. Nursing Leadership Forum, 8(2), 64-71. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14997687
Types of Power
Five Bases

of Power
French & Raven (1959)
Contemporary Theories & Changing Definitions
Paynton (2009); Raven (2008)

Raven, B. H. (2008). The bases of power and the power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8(1), p. 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x
Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy
Social influence
: Change in belief, attitude, or behavior of target resulting from action from influencing agent

Social power
: Potential for such influence using available resources
(Raven, 2008)
Raven, B. H. (2008). The bases of power and the power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8(1), p. 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x
Reward Power
Obtained by ability to grant

rewards

Amount of power is directly correlated with value of reward or favor

Results in socially dependent change, with surveillance necessary

Raven (2008):
Tangible

rewards
or personal reward

Raven, B. H. (2008). The bases of power and the power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8(1), p. 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x
Raven, B. H. (2008). The bases of power and the power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8(1), p. 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x
Raven, B. H. (2008). The bases of power and the power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 8(1), p. 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x
Coercive

Power
Obtained by
fear of punishment

Opposite of reward power

Results in socially dependent change, with surveillance necessary

Raven (2008): Tangible punishments or personal coercion
Legitimate Power
Gained by official position

within an organization

Leads to socially dependent change, with surveillance unnecessary

Raven (2008):
Position

power
, power of reciprocity, power of equity, power of responsibility
Expert Power
Gained through knowledge,
expertise
, or experience

Limited to a specialized area

Leads to socially dependent change, with surveillance unnecessary


Referent

Power
Gained from a perceived relationship to a characteristic, symbol, or person

Occurs with others’ acceptance or approval

Leads to socially dependent change, with surveillance unnecessary
Charismatic

Power
(Not one of 6 bases)
Correlated with referent power
Gained through personal characteristics of which others’ approve or accept

Informational

Power
Obtained from an access to information that others lack yet value or need
Paynton (2009) example: Nurses’ frequent access to patients

Leads to socially independent change

Bases of power presented in larger context:
Motivation for choice of power
Cost/Benefit

Analysis
Devices for Implementing bases of power
Manner in which strategy is used
Evaluating change in target of influence
Readjustment of perceptions & future choices in
power strategy

Power/Interaction

Model
of Interpersonal Influence
Raven, 2008
Politics of Power
Art of using legitimate power wisely
Enables recognition of limitations & potential for change
Requires proactive decisions, assertiveness, accountability, communication
Several strategies exist to deal effectively with organizational politics
Maintain
Personal Energy
Present a Powerful Picture to Others
Pay the Entry Fee
Determine the Powerful in the Organization
Learn the Language and Symbols of the Organization
Learn How to Use the Organization's Priorities
Increase Professional Skills and Knowledge
Maintain a
Broad Vision
Use Experts and Seek Counsel
Flexibility
Develop Visibility and a Voice in the Organization
Learn to Toot Your Own Horn
Maintain a Sense of Humor
Empower Others
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