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Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents
Transcript of Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents
Children & Adolescents A Profile of Personal Strengths By
Sandra Price Embury, Ph.D Personal Qualities Family Factors Theoretical Background Environmental Factors 2005, 2006 "The Resiliency Scales were designed
to systematically identify and quantify
the core personal qualities of resilience
in youth, as expressed in their own
words about their experience" It is assumed that this relationship between personal resources and internal or external stress is unique to each child or adolescent and can be expressed in a Resiliency Profile specific to that individual. Resilience in the face of adversity has been studied extensively by developmental psychopathologists for the past 50 years. Some of the factors that have been identified as the specific personal qualities that may have allowed a child to cope with various types of adversity are: Some of the factors that have been identified as the specific family factors that may have allowed a child to cope with various types of adversity are: Some of the factors that have been identified as the specific environmental factors that may have allowed a child to cope with various types of adversity are: The purpose of this measure is to
provide a theoretically and empirically
sound assessment of the core characteristics of personal resiliency in children and adolescents, ages 9-18, so that these strengths can be easily communicated to them and their care-takers for the
purpose of education, screening, prevention and counseling. "Resiliency reflects the degree to which an individual's personal resources match or exceed their reactivity to internal and external stress." "Resiliency is defined as the ability to weather adversity or to bounce back from a negative experience." Much of this research has been focused on identifying the factors that are present in the lives who thrived in the face of adversity as compared to those who did not. intellectual ability
effective coping skills
communication skills cohesion
positive styles of attachment
a close bond with at least one caregiver positive school experiences
good peer relations
positive relationships with other adults This measure focuses on personal attributes that generally allow some youth to do better than others in the face of adversities 3 Personal Attributes Measured Sense of Mastery
Sense of Relatedness
Emotional Reactivity Sense of Relatedness Emotional Reactivity Sense of Mastery A sense of mastery provides the opportunity for individuals to interact with and enjoy cause and effect relationships in the environment. Sense of Mastery subscales: Optimism- a positive attitude about the world and life in genereal and about an individuals's life specifically, currently and in the future.
Self-efficacy- the sense that one can master one's environment
Adaptability- receptive to feedback, able to learn from mistakes, and wiling/able to ask for help A sense of relatedness refers to feeling securely connected to individuals in a social context. Sense of Relatedness subscales Sense of trust- the ability to receive and accept what is given
Perceived access to support
Comfort with others emotional reactivity may be viewed as a pre-existing vulnerability, arousal or threshold of tolerance to stimulation prior to the occurrence of adverse events or circumstances. Emotional Reactivity subscales Sensitivity- the quickness and intensity of emotional response
Recovery- how soon and how well an individual returns to normal functioning after a strong emotional reaction
Impairment- the level of disruption in functioning due to emotional arousal. Administration & Scoring Examiner Qualifications The Resiliency Scales are self-report scales presented individually in three 2-page record forms: Sense of Mastery (MAS) scale- 20 items
Sense of Relatedness (REL) scale- 24 items
Emotional Reactivity (REA) scale- 20 items May be administered by a variety of individuals under supervision. The individual responsible for the overall administration and interpretation of the scales should be trained in clinical assessment procedures and should be knowledgeable about the appropriate uses and limitations of psychological tests related to there respective reliability and validity. Establishing rapport with children before and during testing is essential for accurate assessment
Self administration may be more difficult for young children, those with reading difficulties, attentions difficulties, or other impairments.
Some accommodations may be made- reading aloud & marking for child or adolescent
Although the Resiliency Scales were originally normed for use with adolescents (Prince-Embury, 2006) they were designed at a third grade reading level so that the same instrument could be used across a wide range extending from childhood through adolescence. The testing environment should be quiet, comfortable and free from distraction.
3 to 5 minutes should be alloted for each individual scale.
All scales should take 9 to 15 minutes for adolescents and 15 to 25 minutes fro children.
One or two pencils with erasers and a flat surface should be provided to each individual.
How the test is introduced depends on the circumstances of the assessment. It is important to emphasize that there are no right or wrong answers. Calculating Total Raw Scores Converting Total Raw Scores Scoring The Resiliency scale scores are calculated for all age bands.
For developmental reasons, the Mastery: Adaptability subscale and Relatedness: Tolerance subscale scores are not interpreted for children 9-11. The Mastery: Adaptability subscale is not interpreted for ages 12-14. The total raw scores for each of the Resiliency scales (MAS, REL & REA) is obtained by summing all items scores for each scale.
Items are scored 0 for responses of Never, 1 for responses of Rarely, 2 for Sometimes, 3 for Often or 4 for responses of Almost always. Total raw scores for the resiliency scales are converted to T scores with a mean of 50 and SD of 10.
Subscale total raw scales are converted to scaled scores with a mean of 10 and a SD of 3 Obtaining Cumulative Percentages Cumulative percentages reflect the frequency with which a socer was obtained within a normative sample. The cumulative percentage of a particular score indicates how many individuals within that normative sample obtained that scaled score or lower. Reliability Evidence of Internal Consistency examined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient
A study of 106 nonclinical adolescents and 90 clinically diagnosed adolescents assessed the internal consistancy of the 20-item Sense of Mastery scale.
The alpha coefficient for both the nonclinical & clinical sample was .93 Test- Retest A sample of 24 adolescents took the Sense of Relatedness scale twice.
The test-retest coefficient was .91 Validity Evidence Based on Internal Structure Problems of Assessment The understanding that resilience is a product of complex interactions of personal attributes and environmental circumstances, mediated by internal mechanisms, has presented an assessment challenge to researchers. Therefore, resiliency has been measured differently across studies and across populations, making it difficult to compare across studies and across disorder groups. "examined using principal axis method of extraction with varimax rotation"
A study of 106 nonclinical adolescents and 90 clinically diagnosed adolescents assessed the variance of the 20-item Sense of Mastery scale.
In the nonclinical sample: 52.76% of the variance (clincal sample: 52.45%) was accounted for by 3 factors: Optimism, Self-efficacy & Adaptability Normative Sample 200 adolescents, ages 15-18 & 450 children, ages 9-14 years 11 months, were selected from a community sample N=754
Cases were eliminated if the teen was receiving servcice for a psychiatric disorder
A stratified sampling plan ensured that the standardized samples included representative proportions of children according to each selected demographic variable as outlined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Cost $99 per complete kit including manual and 25 combination scales booklets; $64 per 25 combination scales booklets; $47 per manual How I might use it Strengths based
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