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Contemporary Issues in Sport Psychology
Transcript of Contemporary Issues in Sport Psychology
Understanding Mental Toughness in Australian soccer: Perceptions of Players, Parents and Coaches
Coulter, T., Mallett, C & Gucciardi, D.
Bull, S., Albinson, J. & Shambrook, C. (1996) The mental game plan: Getting psyched for sport. Eastbourne, UK: Sports Dynamics
Bull, S., Shambrook, C., James, W. & Brooks, J. (2005). Towards an understanding of mental toughness in elite English cricketers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 17, p209 - 227.
Dewhurst, S., Anderson, R., Cotter, G., Crust, L. & Clough, P. (2012) Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm. Personality and Individual differences. 53, p587 – 590.
Goldberg, A. S. (1998). Sports slump busting: 10 steps to mental toughness and peak performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Gould, D., Eklund, R. C., & Jackson, S. A. (1993). Coping strategies used by U.S. Olympic wrestlers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 83–93.
Graham, D., & Yocom, G. (1990). Mental toughness training for golf. Lexington, MA: The Stephen. Greene Press.
Guccardi, D. & Gordon, S. (2008). Personal construct psychology and the research interview: The example of mental toughness in sport. Personal construct theory and practice. 5, p119-130
Interview schedule; personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955/1991)
a) Personal experiences and examples
b) How mental toughness enables players to deal with challenging situations
c) Contrasting attributes
d) Situations requiring mental toughness
Grouped by idea, piece of information with similarity or perception of an episode/event.
Triangular consensus process
Retrospective recall methodology
This study has:
Identified key cognitions associated with mental toughness
Resulted in a refined construct definition of mental toughness
Highlighted the importance of understanding events that demand mental toughness
recipe of psychological factors that appear to set apart the 'good' and 'great' athletes (Gucciardi, Gordon & Dimmock, 2008)
Mental toughness literature states:
What is Mental Toughness?
Personal construct theory (Kelly 1955/1991)
Process model of mental toughness (Gucciardi et al. 2009)
high levels of optimism (Goldberg, 1998)
self-belief (Bull et al. 1996)
self-esteem (Gould et al. 1993)
achieving consistancy (Graham & Yocom, 1990)
Desire, Determination, Commitment (Bull et al. 1996, Goldberg, 1998)
Focus and concentration (Goldberg, 1998)
Willpower (Gould et al. 1993)
Motivation (Bull et al. 1996)
Courage (Hodge, 1994)
Guccardi, D., Gordon, S., & Dimmock, J. (2009) Advancing mental toughness research and theory using personal construct psychology. International review of sport and exercise psychology. 2, p54 – 72.
Hauton, S. & Connaughton, D. (2002) What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of Elite sports performers. Journal of applied Sport Psychology. 14, 205 – 218.
Hodge, K. (1994). Mental toughness in sport: Lessons for life. The pursuit of personal excellence. Journal of Physical Education New Zealand, 27, 12–16.
Jones, G., Hanton, S. & Connaughton, D. (2002) What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 14, p. 205 – 218
Jones, G., Hanton, S. & Connaughton, D. (2007) A framework of mental toughness in the world’s best performers. The Sport Psychologist. 21, p243 - 264
Kelly, G. (1991). The psychology of personal construct: A theory of personality. (Vol1.) London, Routledge. (Original work published 1955).
Synthesis of research findings in line with Gucciardi and colleagues' (2009) process model of mental toughness
Revised definition of mental toughness based upon research findings
Identify and address components percieved to comprise mental toughness
Mental toughness characteristics
Winning mentality and desire (N=14)
Physical toughness (N=13)
Work ethic (N=13)
Situations demanding mental toughness
Injury and rehabilitation process
Being dropped from the team
Mental Toughness Behaviours
Mental toughness cognitions
Playing with injury
consistent high performance
Winning mentality and desire(N=6)
Honest and realistic view of achievements(N=6)
A down to earth perspective (N=6)
Revised definiton of mental toughness
Exclusion of Sport-specific components
Importance of understanding behaviours - observation displays
Some or all of mental toughness components
What conclusions can you draw upon?