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Confined Space Entry

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Tommy Adams

on 1 April 2016

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Transcript of Confined Space Entry

29 CFR 1910.146
A permit-required confined space has one or more of these characteristics:

Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

Contains a material with the potential to engulf someone who enters the space;

Has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section; and/or

Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards.

The program administrator, using properly calibrated direct-reading instrumentation, will test for oxygen content, flammable gases and vapors, and potential toxic air contaminants. If Hazards are found, a permit is required prior to entry along with proper precautions.
By definition, a confined space:

Is large enough for an employee to enter fully and perform assigned work;

Is not designed for continuous occupancy by the employee; and

Has a limited or restricted means of entry or exit.

How do you identify a confined space?

Wouldn't it be nice if we had a decision making flow chart?
Confined Space Entry
Permit Completion
All information requested on the permit will completed by the entry supervisor or “NA” (not applicable) will be written in;

The time of permit issuance will always be written in. In no case will a permit remain valid for more than eight hours. If the job runs past eight hours, a new permit will be issued; and

Expired permits will be returned to the program administrator.

Complete JSA prior to entry
Ensure PPE, communications, rescue service, and tools are in place
Attendant will stay in the immediate area
Attendant will document meter readings at least once an hour
O2, LEL, Toxic
Alert Entrant of hazards, stop job if unsafe conditions arise

These spaces may include underground vaults, tanks, storage bins, pits and diked areas, vessels, silos and other similar areas.
Acceptable readings include:

 Oxygen Content: Between 19.5 and 23.5 percent;

 Flammable Gases/Vapors: Below 10 percent of the lower flammable limit; and

 Toxic Air Contaminant: “Any air conditions defined as a hazardous atmosphere”

Testing shall be done from the exterior of the entrance to the space. At no time will any portion of an employee’s body break the plane of the entrance to the space to conduct atmospheric testing.
The atmosphere will be monitored continuously during the entry to ensure conditions do not change.
Permit-Required Confined Space Entry
Entry supervisor completes confined space permit
All connecting lines/pipes will be broken and capped or blanked
Heating devices will be rendered safe
All mechanical, hydraulic and electrical hazards will be controlled
The space will be rinsed and/or dried if there is a build-up of hazardous or slippery substance on the floor/walls of the space
The space will be cooled to 110 °F or lower
Safe access to the space will be provided
Any open entrances will be blocked to prevent accidental entry
Adequate lighting will be provided

The space will be metered, in the order listed, to determine the following:
1. Oxygen content: between 19.5 and 23.5 percent;
2. Lower Explosive Limit: up to 10 percent
3. All chemical exposures less than the OSHA PEL and/or other exposure guidelines used by our facility; and
4. For vertical entries, the retrieval system will be setup at the entry point.

Am I going in there?
We rarely enter confined spaces on the job. If a job requires it, you will need to receive further training to ensure you understand your responsibilities as an entrant, attendant, or supervisor.

Contact Safety with any concerns.
 The entry permit must be closed out by listing the time of exit and any other pertinent information.
 Barriers to entry must be replaced.
 All broken, capped or blanked lines, ducts and pipes connected to chemical, gas and utility sources will be re-attached or reconnected.
 Lockouts/tagouts will be released.
 Disconnected hydraulic, mechanical and electrical equipment will be reattached.
 Operating personnel for the space will be notified that it can be returned to production (if applicable).
 All safety and entry equipment will be cleaned and returned to storage locations.
 The cancelled permit will be returned to the program administrator.

The entry supervisor will:
Know and understand the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the signs or symptoms and consequences of the exposure.
Verify that:
Appropriate notations have been made on the permit;
All tests specified by the permit have been conducted; and
All procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before endorsing the permit and allowing entry to begin.
Terminate the entry and cancel the permit when reasons for entering the space have been completed or when an unacceptable condition within the space or outside the space is detected.
Verify that rescue services are available and that the means of calling the rescue service are operational. The entry supervisor will ensure that the attendant knows the method for summoning help if rescue is required.
Remove unauthorized individuals who enter or attempt to enter the permit space during entry operations.
Ensure that entry operations remain consistent with terms of the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained whenever responsibility for a permit-space entry operation is transferred and at intervals dictated by the hazards and operations performed within the space.

All entrants must:
Know how to identify the hazards they may be exposed to during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure.
Know how to use any equipment that is provided to them for their protection or their work.
Be familiar with the means and methods of communication so that the attendant can properly monitor their work and so the attendant can deliver evacuation warnings.
Alert the attendant whenever they recognize warning signs or symptoms of exposure to a dangerous situation or whenever they detect a condition that would warrant immediate evacuation.
Exit from the permit space as quickly as possible whenever:
An order to evacuate is given by the attendant or the entry supervisor;
The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation;
The entrant detects a prohibited condition; or
An evacuation alarm is activated.

All attendants will:
Know the hazards that may be faced during entry or while in the space, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure to suspected hazards.
Be aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure in authorized entrants.
Continuously maintain an accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit space and ensure that the means used to identify authorized entrants is precise at all times.
Remain outside the permit space during entry operations until all entrants exit and the operation is closed or they are relieved by other authorized attendants. Note: When the employer's permit entry program allows attendant entry for rescue, attendants may enter a permit space to attempt a rescue if they have been trained and equipped for rescue operations.
Communicate with authorized entrants as necessary to monitor entrant status and to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space when conditions warrant an immediate evacuation.
Monitor activities inside and outside the space to determine if it is safe for entrants to remain in the space.
Order authorized entrants to evacuate the permit space immediately if:
The attendant detects a hazardous condition;
The attendant detects a change in the behavior of any authorized entrant which would suggest an exposure to a hazard;
The attendant detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the authorized entrants; or
The attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all the duties required as outlined in this policy;
Summon rescue and other emergency services if the attendant determines that authorized entrants may need assistance to escape from permit-space hazards. Employers who rely on local emergency services will arrange for responders to give the employer advance notice if they will be unable to respond for a period of time.
Do the following when unauthorized persons approach or enter a permit space while entry is underway:
Warn unauthorized persons that they must stay away from the permit space;
Advise the unauthorized persons that they must exit immediately if they have entered the permit space; or
Inform the authorized entrants and the entry supervisor.
Perform non-entry rescue (rescue attempts that do not cause the attendant to break the plane of the entry to the space) when it is determined a rescue of entrants is required.
Perform no duties that might interfere with the attendant's primary duty to monitor and protect the authorized entrants.

Rescue Service
We have two options for rescue services:

Designate rescue and emergency services with a third party such as the fire department who is trained in rescue and life saving. This will be necessary if there are special circumstances such as obstructions or a high angle rescue is required.

If there are no obstructions or heights requiring special equipment, we can facilitate non-entry rescue.

This will require retrieval systems or methods used whenever an authorized entrant enters a permit space, unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue of the entrant.
Each authorized entrant shall use a chest or full body harness, with a retrieval line attached at the center of the entrant's back near shoulder level, above the entrant's head, or at another point which the employer can establish presents a profile small enough for the successful removal of the entrant.

Wristlets may be used in lieu of the chest or full body harness if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard and that the use of wristlets is the safest and most effective alternative.

The other end of the retrieval line shall be attached to a mechanical device or fixed point outside the permit space in such a manner that rescue can begin as soon as the rescuer becomes aware that rescue is necessary. A mechanical device shall be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet (1.52 m) deep.
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