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Water Treatment Direct Chemistry

Water purification process and wastewater treatment
by

Eric Hultgren

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Water Treatment Direct Chemistry

Water Facts
There is the same amount of water in the world today, as there was when the earth was formed.
In fact...
The water that comes out of your faucet today, could have been part of a glacier or dino pee from millions of years ago.
Nearly 70% of the Earth's surface is covered by water but less than 3% is drinkable. The Oceans hold about 97.2%, and the Glacier's and polar ice caps hold another 2.15%.
That leaves 0.65%
Or does it?
Of that, 0.6329% is deep underground or in the atmosphere. That means...
Only 0.0171% of all the water on Earth is readily accessible for our use.
Even more amazing...
The average person who lives until the age of seventy will require approximately 1-1/2 million gallons of water throughout their life.
How do we get from here...
So, where does all of this clean, usable water come from?
To here.
Summary of the Clean Water Act
33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq. (1972)
The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for
regulating discharges
of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. "Clean Water Act" became the Act's common name with amendments in 1977.
Under the CWA, EPA has implemented pollution control programs such as
setting wastewater standards for industry
. We have also set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters.
The CWA made it
unlawful to discharge any pollutant
from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained.
The average water molecule is in the atmosphere for 9 days
...in the river for 2 weeks...
...in lakes for 10 years...
...in top 150m of the oceans 120 years...
...in the World Oceans 3,000 years...
...and in the Antarctic icecap...
10,000 years!
By the mid-1950s, it had become obvious that the water necessary to supply DuPage county, which came from deep and shallow wells, was being depleted faster than nature could replenish it.
Cities began investigating the feasibility of obtaining Lake Michigan water for DuPage County.
Requests to state and federal bodies for alternative, dependable water resources continued, and ultimately led to the formation of the DuPage Water Commission.
In 1980, the State of Illinois Department of Transportation, Division of Water Resources, granted many of the county's municipalities an allocation of Lake Michigan water.
Landscaping and Outdoor Cleaning
40%
Flushed Down Toilets
30%
Showers and Baths
19%
Washing Clothes and Dishes
10%
Cooking and Drinking
1%
Lake Michigan
The Great Lakes were formed when the glaciers cut through the surface of the earth and melted. This created the largest source of fresh water on the face of the planet.
Lake Michigan is the largest lake in the United States and is the 3rd largest of the Great Lakes and the 5th largest lake in the world.
More than 320,000 gallons evaporate off of the Lake every second!
HOW?
The PROCESS
Chicago's Jardine Water Purification Plant treats the water that the Commission purchases. The Jardine Water Purification Plant is the largest potable water filtration plant in the world with a capacity of 1.4 billion gallons per day.
In nature, water is not always clean enough for people to drink.
Because water is a good solvent,
it picks up all sorts of natural pollutants.
Today, almost every city in the world treats their drinking water.
Treatment includes disinfection with chlorine or other chemicals to kill any germs in the water.
Water composition is tested from every point in the system.
Chemical amounts are quite small.
The total volume needed to treat 100 gallons of water is about a teaspoon full.
That's 15 parts of chemical to 1 million parts of water!
Water from Lake Michigan enters the intake crib at depths of 20 to 30 feet.
Water enters the purification plant's intake basin through a tunnel beneath the lake bed.
Water is filtered through eight traveling screens to catch debris.
Water is pumped by low lift pumps up to 25 feet for the first chemical treatment
Water flows from the chemical application channels.
Water flows through mixing basins to begin the flocculation process.
Flocculated water passes into settling basins to sit for hours allowing floc to settle.
Flocculants are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate.
Water is filtered through sand and gravel performing a "natural polishing".
Filtered water flows in for its final chemical application.
Water flows to the distribution system.
Chicago's Jardine Water Purification Plant
8 pumps send a daily capacity of 296 million gallons per day to DuPage County.
Each city owns and operates pressure stations to increase or decrease the water pressure. From here, it ends up...
Wastewater Treatment
But what a gross 0.06%!
Did you know a drop of water leaving your house can be cleaned and back into the river within 24 hours?
This is how...
An average treatment plant can clean 12 million gallons per day.
we can go from this...
...to this.
And just imagine, more than 70% of the world's population goes without clean water.
Full transcript