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Forensic Linguistics

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María Sánchez

on 7 November 2012

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Transcript of Forensic Linguistics

Forensic Linguistics Emergency calls Who is on the other side of the line? Call-takers Their function is to ask questions about the incident in order to gather useful information. How? Using a Computer Aid Dispatch (CAD) system to collect the information and transfer it to the police. They are responsible for transferring the calls depending on their own judgement towards the call. How do they make these judgements? One of the most important features to take into account is urgency. However, linguists argue that urgency can be
conditioned by the caller's level of anxiousness. Therefore, as linguists, we
should focus more on the
linguistic aspects of a call. How are emergency calls structured? It has been found that they follow similar patterns in the same order: 1. Opening
2. Request
3. Interrogative Series
4. Dispatch Response
5. Closing 1 911: Midcity Emergency 2 (.) 3 Um yeah (.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 Somebody just vandalized my car, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 (0.3) 6 911: What's your address. 7 C: Three oh one six maple 8 911: Is this a house or an apartment. 9 C: It's a house 10 911: (Uh-) your last name. 11 C: Minsky 12 911: How do you spell it? 13 C: M I N S K Y - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 911: We'll send someone out to see you. 15 C: Thank you. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 911: Umhm bye. 17 C: Bye. Closing Dispatch Response Interrogative Series Request Opening Suicide letters Experts can distiguish genuine and simulated suicide letters by studying:

The vocabulary

Matching phrases

Concordances and structures

Types of sentences and conectors Can be
presented
as a proof
in a
judgment Study
fulfilled
by using: Computer
techniques Technical statistics Genuine suicide letter: No reasons for killing themselves.
Adress their love ones.
Short letters.
Unclear situational context.
Express the point of view of the author. ''I hope this is what you wanted.'' False suicide letter: ''Dear Mom, In the last week a number of occurrances have forced me into a position where I feel my life is not worth continuing. Friday I lost the job I have held for the past seven years. When I told my wife she packed her bags and left me. For six years she has beenliving with me, not for me but for my money.
Mom please take care of Mary for me. I'm leaving and I don't want Betty to have her.
I have nothing left to live for so I'm just checking out - I love you Mom, Bill'' Longer sentences with less nouns and verbs.
Long and complicated letters.
Blame someone or something.
Gives a reason for his/her death. Israel Ramírez Godínez
Bárbara Samper Tárraga
María Sánchez Sierra
Ramiro Raúl Trettel References Alonso, F. J. Profes.net. http://www.lengua.profes.net/puntovista2.asp?id_contenido=48616 (Date of access: 8th December 2011).

Bennetto, J. (1994). Hidden messages in suicide notes: New study distinguishes genuine letters from murder cover-ups. Jason Bennetto reports. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/hidden-messages-in-suicide-notes-new-study-distinguishes-genuine-letters-from-murder-coverups-jason-bennetto-reports-1449892.html (Date of access: 8th December 2011).

Coulthard, M., Johnson, A., Kredens, K., & Woolls, D. (2010). Plagiarism: Four forensic linguists' responses to suspected plagiarism. In M. Coulthard & A. Johnson (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics. London: Routledge, p. 523-538.

Drew, P. & Walker, T. (2010). Citizens' emergency calls: Requesting assistance in calls to the police. In M. Coulthard & A. Johnson (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics. London: Routledge, p. 95-96.

Olsson, J. (2008). Forensic Linguistics. London: Continuum. Linguistics knowledge applied to the context of law, trials and criminal investigation The term appeared in 1968 and was introduced by Jan Svartvik Divided into three branches: Language of the law
Language use of judicial processes
Linguistic evidence Lord Woolf reforming From Frye test to Daubert test the civil court system Forensic linguistics United States United Kingdom What is it? We will focus on three different aspects of applied linguistics: 1. Plagiarism
2. Emergency calls
3. Suicide letters Plagiarism There is not a clear definition, and at the same, time there are too many definitions; each institution has its proper definition. Oxford Dictionary defines it as: THEN,
WHEN IS PLAGIARISIM
COMMITED? When someone copies words or phrases from another person. It does not matter whether they have been changed or not, or if it has been intentionally or not. Also, the copy or the resemblance of structures and ideas can be seen as plagiarism. When references are not correct or quotations are wrongly used. HOW IS PLAGIARISM DETECTED? It is possible basically thanks to the informatic tools. Before, it was based on reading and comparing both texts. Number of identical characters
Number of identical words
Number of sentences
Sequences of words
ETC. Now, programmes analyze text as data and compare it through internet or corpora: HOW CAN PLAGIARISM BE AVOIDED? Paraphrasing correctly
Using quotation marks
Indicating always the sources that were used for a work Remember that a correct use of quotes and the addition of different points of view can enrich a work if it is done correctly. “the practice of taking someone else’s work
or ideas and passing them off as one’s own”
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