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ASYLUMS

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on 23 January 2014

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Transcript of ASYLUMS

ASYLUMS
Asylums
a·sy·lum
n.
1. An institution for the care of people, especially those with physical or mental impairments, who require organized supervision or assistance.

2. A place offering protection and safety; a shelter.
Background
The first mental asylum can be traced back as early as the 5th century in the Middle East.
Most sufferers of mental disorders throughout history have not been treated as patients, but rather as prisoners.
Lobotomy was a common cure for a lot of different mental health conditions.
President JFK the Community Mental Health Center Act in 1963 which helped with the creation of more mental hospitals.
Dorothea Dix was an advocate for the creation of more and better psychiatric hospitals in the U.S.
Commonly used Cures
Lobotomy's
Electroconvulsive therapy
Insulin coma therapy
Art therapy
Exorcisms
Hypnotism
Rotation therapy
Hydro therapy
Functionalism within an asylum
The patients are the "lower class" they are the reason this total institution was created and are treated like savages.
The nurses and doctors would be like the "Middle class" they take care and try to cure the patents using cruel methods of treatment.
The warden and religious figure would probably be considered the "upper class" because the warden would be the person who runs the institution and the religious figure who would be a pastor or priest had the biggest influence because his religious powers could single-handed heal patients through exorcisms and other religious remedies.
Conclusion
Insane asylums are total institutions which have many different aspects of it. Their sociological aspects include Functionalism and Conflict perspective but also much more. They were and still are a large part of society but like much else they have changed with the time and along with society.
Functionalism
(n) the theory that all aspects of a society serve a function and are necessary for the survival of that society.
Social Conflict
(n) Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society. Social conflict or group conflict occurs when two or more actors oppose each other in social interaction, reciprocally exerting social power in an effort to attain scarce or incompatible goals and prevent the opponent from attaining them.
Asylums help possibly reform and rehabilitate those with mental illnesses.
They are a safe house made in order to protect the mentally ill and to protect those outside the hospitals.
Many times people who were not mentally ill were placed in asylums also many times the poor, homeless, and other "unwanted" people of society.
Conflict Perspective
Functionalism Perspective
In asylums there is always a struggle for power but because power means control and control over the mentally ill is hard to grasp. this leads to violent events between the patients and those in charge. Wardens, nurses and religious figures would often use means of extreme violence to punish patients for doing things they did not understand were wrong and therefore reacted by behaving violently back towards the staff of the asylum.
Role of religion
Religion used to play a large role in asylums. This is because it was often believed that the mentally ill were in contact with or often possessed or tricked by Satan and his demons. Many times this led to religious/ritualistic "Cures" which included brutal mistreatment's as well as exorcisms.
Often these cures had very little good results and no medical background. These "cures" were sometimes just experimentation or forms of torture to get the patients to agree to obey the doctors.
Seacliff Lunatic Asylum
Ashworth Hospital
It was built in the 1830's as a home for children from the Merseyside workhouses, but it quickly changed to house the ‘lunatics’ .
Infamous Patients:
Ian Brady – Known as the Moors Murderer, along with Myra Hindley, he killed five children and was sentenced to life in prison in 1966. In 1985, Brady was diagnosed as a psychopath and was sent to Ashworth Hospital, where he remains to this day, despite recent attempts to be moved back to prison.
Dale Cregan – Responsible for the murders of PCs Fiona Bone and Hicola Huges, alongside David and Mark Short. Cregan was handed a whole-life sentence in June this year (2013.) After a month of hunger striking, Cregan was sent to the maximum security Ashworth hospital.
Seacliff Lunatic Asylum was opened in 1872 in New Zealand, and was quickly named the largest and most extravagant building in the country.
Seacliff Lunatic Asylum has a particularly grotesque history of patient treatment, labelled by many as cruel. Patients were often diagnosed with conditions they did not have, such as schizophrenia and were wrongly imprisoned for many years.
Patients were reportedly beaten for ‘misbehaving’, which encompassed a range of actions from bed wetting to not waking up on demand. On the contrary to such claims, a nurse who worked at Seacliff during the 1940s claims that Frames’ descriptions were grossly enhanced.
Background continued
The new worlds first hospital was established in Mexico city.
The Packard law is passed in illinois in 1867 requiring that a patients insanity must be determined by the jury before being sent to a mental institution.
1883: Work therapy is introduced; asylum residents are put to work in the gardens.
The Decline of Insane Asylums
As time went on the popularity of insane asylums decreased. People learned more about the mentally ill and therefor where more disturbed by the treatment of them. Discoveries and technologies in science and medicine helped discover more humane treatments with better outcomes. Also many asylums became overcrowded and had to shut down. The transition went from Insane Asylums for the"Crazy" and "Insane" to Mental Hospitals for the Mentally ill.
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