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Byzantine and Islam
Transcript of Byzantine and Islam
Empire became large trading area for goods from Asia, Africa, and Europe
Arabic becomes the common language of the empire
Seljuk Turks and Crusades lead to decline of Empire
Golden age of Muslim Culture
Umayyad Caliph—expansion through war
Abbasid Caliph—expansion through trade
Eventually all people are treated equally, Jews and Christians are permitted to self-govern themselves but had to pay tax
Caliphs—Muslim leader who succeeds Muhammed
Division of Islam
Most Muslims (Sunnis) follow Umayyad Caliph, a small group (Shiites) only agree to follow descendants of Mohammed
Basic religious duties that all Muslims must fulfill to strengthen faith
Confession of Faith
Prayer toward Mecca 5 times a day
Fasting during Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca if you can afford to
The Five Pillars of Islam
The Holy Book of Islam, believe that it is the words that God revealed to Mohammed
Covers forms of worship, conduct, treatment of women
Fundamental doctrine:”There is no God but Allah, and Muhammed is his prophet
Due to war in the area, trade is moved to different routes
Cities rise up to meet new routes, one of these was Mecca.
Mecca becomes the starting point of a new religion Islam (submission to the will of god)
Rise of Islam
Preservation of Ancient Cultures—saved heritage of classical civilization (Greek philosophy & science, Roman engineering, ancient texts)
Code of Justinian
Contact with Russia begins due to trade with Constantinople
Adopt Byzantine culture such as Orthodox Christianity ,alphabet, and architecture
Influence on Russia
Series of powerful emperors with
strong central govt & single set of laws
used taxes to support a large standing army and
conquer much of old empire
all people to belong to
Created Code of Justinian
legal code using all
basis for later European law codes.
Byzantine culture was a mix of Roman, Greek, Christian, and Middle Eastern cultures
Constantinople major trade center (Spices & Silk—East, Furs—Russia)
Church of Hagia Sophia, icons, mosaics spread Byzantine influence
Constantine moves capital to Constantinople
located on land route between Europe and Asia
will go on to last for another 1,000 years
Byzantine Empire (330-1453)
Math—Develop Arabic numerals & advance geometry & algebra
Arts & Crafts—forbid images of god or people, focused on design and creation of textiles, rugs and leather
Medicine—detailed study of anatomy, diagnosis of several diseases
Architecture—built palaces and mosques
Arab Cultural Achievements
Islam unites Arab tribes with religion and new language (Arabic)
Holy city of Mecca
Begin “holy war” vs non-believers take over territory from Indus valley to Europe
Stopped at Battle of Tours in Spain
Has a vision the Angel Gabriel tells him to convert Arab tribes to believe in one God (Allah)
He flees to city of Medina, raises an army to retake Mecca and wage holy war or jihad
Two years after victory he dies, by this time most tribes in Arabia had converted to Islam
Mohammad: The Prophet of Islam
Continuous Battles with Slavs, Persians and Muslims leads to loss of outer territory
1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine Army, empire begins to be attacked on all sides
In 1453 Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks
Decline of Byzantine Empire
Own form of Christianity—
(images of Jesus and the Saints) to decorate Church’s
not recognize the pope
in Rome as head of the Church, had their own
in Constantinople & along with
they control church
What does this map show?
What do the red and purple lines represent? The lists of items in black?
Where do many of the trade routes seem to intersect?
What does this tell us about Constantinople?
Look back in your notes and give me two reasons why western Rome fell.
Why was Constantinople so important?
In you TEKS half-sheet, underline three TEKS we covered yesterday.
List four world religions we have covered this year
Write two things you learned about Islam yesterday.