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Byzantine and Islam

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by

Jocelyn Harty

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of Byzantine and Islam

Arabs absorbed culture of Rome, Greece, Persians, Jews & Byzantines
Empire became large trading area for goods from Asia, Africa, and Europe
Arabic becomes the common language of the empire
Seljuk Turks and Crusades lead to decline of Empire
Golden age of Muslim Culture
Umayyad Caliph—expansion through war
Abbasid Caliph—expansion through trade
Eventually all people are treated equally, Jews and Christians are permitted to self-govern themselves but had to pay tax
The Caliphates
Caliphs—Muslim leader who succeeds Muhammed

Division of Islam
Most Muslims (Sunnis) follow Umayyad Caliph, a small group (Shiites) only agree to follow descendants of Mohammed
The Caliphates
Basic religious duties that all Muslims must fulfill to strengthen faith



Confession of Faith
Prayer toward Mecca 5 times a day
Charity
Fasting during Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca if you can afford to
The Five Pillars of Islam
The Holy Book of Islam, believe that it is the words that God revealed to Mohammed
Covers forms of worship, conduct, treatment of women
Fundamental doctrine:”There is no God but Allah, and Muhammed is his prophet
The Quran
Due to war in the area, trade is moved to different routes
Cities rise up to meet new routes, one of these was Mecca.
Mecca becomes the starting point of a new religion Islam (submission to the will of god)
Rise of Islam
Islam
Preservation of Ancient Cultures—saved heritage of classical civilization (Greek philosophy & science, Roman engineering, ancient texts)
Code of Justinian
Byzantine Legacy
Contact with Russia begins due to trade with Constantinople
Adopt Byzantine culture such as Orthodox Christianity ,alphabet, and architecture
Influence on Russia
Series of powerful emperors with
strong central govt & single set of laws
used taxes to support a large standing army and
conquer much of old empire
required
all people to belong to
Eastern Orthodox
church
Created Code of Justinian
legal code using all
Roman
and religious
laws
basis for later European law codes.
Justinian
Byzantine culture was a mix of Roman, Greek, Christian, and Middle Eastern cultures
Constantinople major trade center (Spices & Silk—East, Furs—Russia)
Church of Hagia Sophia, icons, mosaics spread Byzantine influence
Byzantine Culture
Constantine moves capital to Constantinople
located on land route between Europe and Asia
will go on to last for another 1,000 years
Byzantine Empire (330-1453)
Unit 4
Byzantine Empire
Math—Develop Arabic numerals & advance geometry & algebra
Arts & Crafts—forbid images of god or people, focused on design and creation of textiles, rugs and leather
Medicine—detailed study of anatomy, diagnosis of several diseases
Architecture—built palaces and mosques
Arab Cultural Achievements
Islam unites Arab tribes with religion and new language (Arabic)
Holy city of Mecca
Begin “holy war” vs non-believers take over territory from Indus valley to Europe
Stopped at Battle of Tours in Spain
Islam spreads
Founded Islam
Has a vision the Angel Gabriel tells him to convert Arab tribes to believe in one God (Allah)
He flees to city of Medina, raises an army to retake Mecca and wage holy war or jihad
Two years after victory he dies, by this time most tribes in Arabia had converted to Islam
Mohammad: The Prophet of Islam
Continuous Battles with Slavs, Persians and Muslims leads to loss of outer territory
1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine Army, empire begins to be attacked on all sides
In 1453 Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks
Decline of Byzantine Empire
Own form of Christianity—
Eastern Orthodox
used icons
(images of Jesus and the Saints) to decorate Church’s
Schism--EO did
not recognize the pope
in Rome as head of the Church, had their own
patriarch
in Constantinople & along with
emperor
they control church
Byzantine Religion
What does this map show?
What do the red and purple lines represent? The lists of items in black?
Where do many of the trade routes seem to intersect?
What does this tell us about Constantinople?
Warm Up
Look back in your notes and give me two reasons why western Rome fell.
Warm Up
Why was Constantinople so important?
Warm Up
In you TEKS half-sheet, underline three TEKS we covered yesterday.
Warm Up

List four world religions we have covered this year
.
Warm Up
Write two things you learned about Islam yesterday.
Full transcript