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Asian American Identity Development
Transcript of Asian American Identity Development
Theory created in the 1980's
Study of experiences of Japanese women
Three underlying assumptions
Assumes racism is pervasive
Shedding negative identity requires conscious effort
Re-framing of negative events needed for positive identity development
1. Understanding of the Asian American Identity Development theory
2. Develop an appreciation for the challenges faced by Asian American college students
3. Summarize ways to apply AAID theory as a practitioner
What does it mean to be Asian?
Describe Eastern thought and Western thought
Collective/Public Orientation and Individual/Private Orientation
AAID is a 5 stage theory
Stage 1: Ethnic Awareness
Identity formed through family structure, prior to integration of school and peers
Distinct - Progressive - Sequential
Stage 3: Awakening to Social Political Consciousness
Realization that acts of discrimination come from the structure of race in our society
Small Group Discussion
1. How do you feel about the challenges faced by Asian American students?
2. What limitations do you see emerging from this theory?
3. How can we effectively put this theory into practice?
Does not address the experiences of Asian international students.
Needs to study and compare other ethnicities with AAID
Theory based on involvement with political movements that challenge racial dynamics and institutions
Generational differences (First/Second/...)
Be aware of the ethnic diversity of Asian Americans and the importance of language, social context, relationships, and external forces that affect development.
Include religious and spiritual resources
The choice of major and career
is very important for Asian Americans
Review and Recommendations
AAID is a distinct, progressive, and sequential 5-stage theory.
Asian Americans identify usually with their ethnicity more than race. Race is important when things affect it as a whole.
Limitations of theory include: ethnicity, gender, generational differences, etc.
Application: Must be aware of the student's background and identity. Be aware of the context of your interaction and relationship with student.
Batra, L. (2006). Working with Asian American College Students. ACPA website.
Retrieved September 25, 2013 from
Evans, N., Forney, D., & Guido-Dibrito, F. (2010). Student development in college:
Theory, research, and practice (pp. 265-266). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kim, J. (2006). Asian American identity development theory. In M.E. Wilson & L.E. Wolf-Wendel (Eds.), ASHE Reader on College Student Development Theory (pp. 281-293). United States: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Liang, C. T. H., Li, L. C., & Kim, B. S. K. (2004). The asian american racism-related
stress inventory: Development, factor analysis, reliability, and validity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), 103-114. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236613106?accountid=14749
Torres, V., Howard-Hamilton, M. F., & Cooper, D. L. (2003). Identity development of diverse populations: Implications for teaching and administration in higher education (pp. 59-64). ASHE-ERIC higher education report, 29(6).
Sue and Sue
Focused on counseling
Ibrahim, Onishi, and Sandhu
Focus on South Asian Americans
Yoshioka, Tashima, Chew, and Maruse
29 distinct Asian American sub-groups
Stage 2: White Identification
Active attempts to assimilate and identify as white, effort to avoid criticisms of differences
Asian American Identity Development Theory
By Jean Kim
Stage 4: Redirection
Development of a sense of pride within themselves with support of family, friends, social networks
Stage 5: Incorporation
Establishment of a healthy self-concept, integrates and interacts with others outside of own race
Passive vs. Active White Identification