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Unit 2: The Classical Era in World History
Transcript of Unit 2: The Classical Era in World History
500 b.c.e.-500 c.e.
What is an Empire?
Is the U.S.A. the new
Is that good/bad?
How do they form?
Why do they eventually fall?
What are Classical Empires?
How does the development of states and empires connect to the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions?
Eurasian Cultural Traditions
In what ways did the religions and philosophies of the classical period support the social structures of classical societies? In what ways did the religions and philosophies undermine those social structures?
Eurasian Social Hierarchies
Period 2: Organization & Reorganization of Human Societies
Key Concept 2.2: The Development of
States and Empires
Key Concept 2.1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
The Big Picture:
What changed and what didn't following the 1st Civilizations?
How did Persian and Greek civilizations differ in political organization and values?
The Persians vs The Greeks
Read about the Persians & Greeks.
Take 3 column notes by dividing the sections as follows
Chapter 4: Key Terms
After taking notes on chapter 4 at any time...
chart the 11 key terms at the back according to the following categories...
Reflection: Respond to the essential question
as a pair using your notes and include a primary source for both Greece and Persia
First, each person in your group
needs to identify with one
characteristic of their empire.
Now, find a person from the
other empire with a characteristic
that mirrors yours.
Collisions: The Greco-Persian Wars/Alexander and the Hellenistic Era
Create a chart that illustrates...
the long-term causes
the short-term causes
the short term effects
the long-term effects
Roman and Chinese
New techniques of imperial
Elaborate legal systems
Projecting military power w/
a variety of
Developing supply lines
Fortifications, defensive walls and roads
New groups of military officers/soldiers from local pop./conquered people
Success of empires rested on
promotion of trade
economic integration by building roads and issuing currencies
romotion of trade
Returning to your notes/packet, identify within the Empires of Rome and China the Institutions (I), Techniques (T) and Promotion of trade (P).
Yellow Turban Rebellion
Battle of Marathon
Mandate of Heaven
Cyrus the Great
Alexander the Great
Defined themselves in universal terms
Invested heavily in public works to integrate their domains militarily/commercially:
roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, walls
Invoked supernatural sanctions to support their rule
Absorbed a foreign religious tradition (Christianity/Buddhism)
Politically established effective centralized control over vast regions and huge populations
Relied on regional elites/army to provide political cohesion
Latin, an alphabetic language depicting sounds, gave rise to various distinct languages: span/fren/ital/port
Developed elaborate body of law, applicable to all in empire, based on justice, property, commerce and fam.
Christianity grew slowly thru the lower classes aided by the Pax Romana and then adopted by Emperors to bring new cohesion to empire
Romans always a minority in their own empire
Gradually granted citizenship to individuals/families/communities based on service to empire
Developed a more elaborate bureaucracy to hold empire together
Chinese characters, representing words, weren't easily transferable to other languages but could be understood easily by all literate people, and led to elite assimilation.
Buddhism came from India to China thru Asian traders & received little support from Han Dynasty
Buddhism gained state support thru Sui Dynasty from Emperor Wendi...appealed to people who felt bewildered by the loss of a stable/predictable society
Grew out of a larger cultural heartland already ethnically Chinese. Assimilated much easier thru expansion
Ended in 476 c.e. after a long decline
Only Western half collapsed
East= Byzantine Empire
Germanic Kingdoms developed own culture- goth!
25% pop. decline=lower production, less revenue, weaker army
No re-est. of unified West since
Ended in 220 c.e. as a result of internal/external factors:
corrution, peasant unrest, peasant revolt 184 c.e.
"Barbarian states" on the frontier
350 yrs disunion, disorder, warfare, pol. chaos
Sui, Tan, Song
bureauracracy selected by examinations
Confucian ideas led to political system
As states and empires increased in size and contacts between regions multiplied, religious and cultural systems were transformed. Religions and belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. These shared beliefs also influenced and reinforced political, economic, and occupational stratification. Religious and political authority often merged as rulers used religion, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure it's continuation. Religions and belief systems could also generate conflict, partly because beliefs and practices varied greatly within societies
reflected Mesopotamian cultural and legal traditions
Conquests of Assyrians, Babylonians & Romans
contribute to growth of Jewish communities
Codifications & further developments
existing religious traditions
provided a bond among the people & an ethical code to live by.
Basis of Vedic religions
Contributed to caste system politically and socially
Brahma=promoted teachings of reincarnation
New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths
preached the search for enlightenment thru understanding of desire, suffering
recorded as sutras in rxn to Vedic beliefs & rituals
Changed as it spread thru Asia- 1st supported by Mauryan Emperor Ashoka...then thru missionaries/merchants/educational institutions
based on teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth
recorded by his disciples
drawing from Judaism
initially rejected (Hellenistic/Roman influences)
spread thru missionaries/merchants
gained support from Emperor Constantine
emphasized logic, empirical observation, nature of political power& heirarchy
"knowing you know nothing"
"the unexamined life is not worth living"
"I cannot teach you anything, I can only make you think"
-Greek rationalism supported the idea of "natural slaves"
-Confucian philosophies supported the idea of "unequal relationships"
-Hindu religion underpinned the ideas of the varna and jati systems
-Buddhism & Christianity promoted the idea of equality for all believers
-Daoism provided the ideological underpinnings for the Yellow Turban Rebellion
What are the major ways in which contact with Eurasia encouraged the development of African civilizations?
What was the impact of Africa’s warm climate on the development of civilizations on that continent?
Why did civilization develop in the Niger Valley?
the migration of southern Saharan peoples to the region because of a prolonged drought
the presence of fertile, well-watered land for agriculture
a network of West African trade w/ specialization both urban and rural
In what ways did the arrival of Bantu-speaking peoples stimulate cross-cultural interaction?
• the spread of agriculture...large #s of people in smaller areas
• the creation of 400 closely related Bantu languages "clicks"
They brought parasitic and infectious diseases
Networks of exchange with forest dwelling Batwa (pygmies) and eventual assimilation
adopted similar crops, domesticated animals from the region
acquired food crops from Southeast Asia like coconuts, sugarcane, and bananas through Indian Ocean trade
• the spread of iron working technology
• belief in the centrality of ancestor observances
• an understanding of evil as being caused by individual malice or by a failure to venerate ancestors
• the preeminence of women in agriculture
What were the fundamental differences
between the development of civilizations
in the Americas and the development of civilizations elsewhere?
• lack of contact with other civilizations
• lack of large domesticated animals
• lack of iron working technologies
• Implicit in the text is the development of states from ceremonial centers.
Comparative Analysis: How great are the differences between societies of Africa (Axum Meroe) and those of Mesoamerica?
-Xia, Shang, Zhou fall 500bce
-Age of Warring States
-only solution is to restore empire
-Qin Dynasty "Shihuangdi" 221-210
Legalism: clear rules/consequen.
-N. Vietnam, Korea, steppes of NW
-Execution of scholars, book burning
-Great Wall built on backs of many
7500 ceramic soldiers
-Standardized weights, measures,
currency, written Chinese, axles
core beliefs originated in writings of Confucius
elaborated by key disciples promoting social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China (including rulers)
core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly
So the Daoists said there was a worm in each Dan Tien (Elixir Field--the three main energy centers). The one in the lower abdomen causes lust in addition to intestinal distress. The one in the heart center causes anxiety as well as heart and lung diseases. The one in the forehead (Third Eye) center caused psychic distress and attachment to worldly things. They feed off of grains, and endeavor to kill the body for their feast.
To have any hope of living a long time, the Daoists counselled, one must abstain from grains while killing the Three Worms with herbs, exercises, and a diet of vegetables and mushrooms
Rules, rules, rules
people are shortsighted, stupid
strict rewards & punishments
developed in response to what?
social harmony = moral example of superiors
human society consists of unequal relationships
moral behavior = sincerity, benevolence,
genuine concern for others
motivation for inferiors to obey
developed in response to??
Disorder stemmed from human actions
solution = withdraw from political/social
world into the dao, or way of nature
simple living, self-sufficient,
limited gov't, no education,
motivated the peasant class
to rebel in the...?
The Great Wave
Elites thought that Daoism
Unity of the opposites = ?
Goodness in gov't vs.
individual in personal life
All responded to the chaos of the "age of
warring states" (403-221 b.c.e)
all sought an alternative to polytheism
quest for source of order and
meaning in the universe
all helped shape
Both focused on political and social
Created expectations for the people
Women were seen as inferior
Both were secular in nature
Which of the 3 answers to the Age of Warring States in China do you believe to be MOST effective? Which philosophy would be MOST effective in transforming WHS for the better?
South Asian Religion:
widely recognized sacred texts provide common ground within diversity of Indian culture & religion
no historical founder
SE Asia & India exclusive
never a single tradition...
Hinduism is a made up word
Elite culture enthusiastic about divine/spiritual matters
poems, hymns, prayers, rituals
compiled by Brahmins (priests) orally
not written in Sanskrit until 600 B.C.E.
Brahmins role in ritual sacrifice gave them power and wealth
mystical, philosophical works
developed in response to wealthy Brahmins
composed 800-400 B.C.E.
Vedic sacrifices led to deeper thinking about the meaning of the rituals
Brahman (World Soul)
Ultimate reality of primal unitary energy infusing all things
Individualism was an illusion
Atman (individual human soul):
a part of the Brahman
goal is to end illusion of separation and achieve...MOKSHA or liberation
Achievement of goal:
involved many lifetimes thru SAMSARA or reincarnation
Pure actions pertaining to your station or KARMA move you along thru samsara
Methods to achieve MOKSHA:
knowledge or study
detached action in the world without regard to consequences
passionate devotion to a single diety
Ideas carried by Brahmin priests and wandering ascetics
Developed side by side with philosophical Hinduism
Similarities between H
induism and Buddhism
demands of ego
hope for release
from cycle of rebirth
Siddartha Gautama 566-486 prince-peasant
Spiritual journey led to ENLIGHTENMENT
Central idea----> ->life is suffering
Sorrow caused by attachment to self/ego
Cure exists in a modest/moral life
Goal is enlightenment thru NIRVANA
Buddhism challenged Hinduism:
Rejected Brahmins authority
lacked interest in abstract speculation
individuals take responsibility
opposed inequalities of caste system and Indian patriarchy
appealed to lower castes/women
taught in local languages NOT sanskrit
linked to local traditions, monastaries/stupas (shrines)
state support from Ashoka
How did Hinduism
transform over time?
Choose one and
provide an example for India
-Cause and effect?
Gautama was born into a ruling family and was surrounded by luxury
never promoted to the exclusion of other faiths in India, whereas in the Roman Empire Christianity was promoted as the single legal faith.
largely ignored the supernatural
involved no miracles
taught a path of intense self-effort aimed at ethical living and mindfulness as a means of ending suffering
Buddha’s public life lasted over forty years.
Jesus was a rural or small-town worker from a lower-class family
Inherited from Jewish tradition an intense devotion to a single personal deity with whom he was on intimate terms.
Performed miracles that reflected the power of God available to him as a result of that relationship
Teachings were politically and socially sharper than those of Buddha
Public life was very brief.
Both became spiritual seekers, mystics in their own traditions, who claimed to personally experience another level of reality.
Both were “wisdom teachers,” challenging the conventional values of their time
Both urged the renunciation of wealth
Emphasized the supreme importance of love or compassion as the basis for a moral life.
Both called for the personal transformation of their followers.
Neither Buddha nor Jesus planned to found new religions.
Both of their messages emerged soon after their deaths as separate religions embraced by much wider and more inclusive audiences.
Both were transformed from teachers into gods by their followers.
Both Buddhist and Christian followers clashed over interpretations of their respective founder’s teachings.
In what ways was Christianity transformed in the five centuries following the death of Jesus?
Jesus became divine in the eyes of his followers.
Christianity developed from a small Jewish sect into a world religion that included non-Jews.
It spread throughout the Roman Empire, at first via the lower-class, and then Roman rulers used its popularity as glue to hold together a diverse population in a weakening imperial state.
Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, and all polytheistic religions were banned.
Christianity adopted elements of religious practice as it spread.
It developed a hierarchical organization, with patriarchs, bishops, and priests.
It ultimately developed a patriarchal, male-dominated clergy.
Ultimately, permanent divisions formed because of the disunity in matters of doctrine and practice.
Responding to primary sources:
-Each author reflects on what a "good life
or "a good society" should be like and describe the superior or virtuous person.
Also, how are they all reacting against the conventional wisdom of their time.
Finally, how does each source reflect or is used to reflect the character of the empire?
Your task is to read and analyze one of the 4 sources in order to respond to the above in a comprehensive essay. You will need to use a 3 part source integration skills to incorporate quotes that support your findings.
Many religious and cultural traditions emerged in the Classical Era in an attempt to define a virtuous person.
As a result, followers of such traditions were given a virtual "rulebook" on how to live their lives. The most famous of these examples can be found in the Gospel of Matthew during the second half of the first century c.e.
Jesus, in the Sermon on the Mount maintained that,
"Blessed are those that hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. Blessed are the merciful for they will be shown mercy."
Here Jesus established a new kind of virtue in which those that are favored by God are those that show kindness over power.
1. JIGSAW groups
2. Each Eurasian cultural tradition should be represented
3. Create a skit that applies the teachings (Use of notes from Strayer) of your tradition in a MODERN setting (may vary)
4. EACH person should be the personification of your religious or cultural tradition
5. A direct quote from each source should be used
6. to show a virtuous individual;
rxn against conventional wisdom of OUR day;
or ideal society
7. 1-2 minutes, humor a plus, and winner gets extra credit on the quiz
Role play application
What philosophical, religious, or cultural ideas served to legitimize the class and gender inequalities of Classical Civilizations?
Eurasian social hierarchies in terms of class and caste in India and China
the underlying reasons for the over/under valuing of different classes
-top of the social hierarchy
-drawn from wealthy landowning families
-1st professional civil service
-Emperor Wudi: imperial academy 124 bce
*30,000 students by end of Han
*written examinations to select officials
*Favored wealthy (education)
-largest part of the Chinese population
-pop. growth, taxation, indebtedness led to tenant farming
-differentiation...some worked and owned land...other could barely survive
-negatively viewed class
-viewed as unproductive
-shameful profiting off others' work
-despite discrimination...they remained wealthy
-some purchased large estates to move up to elite
-owned large estates that replaced small-scale peasant farms
-state opposed large estates
-Wang Mang reforms
Caste as Varna:
-caste= "race, purity of blood"
-evolved from interactions
*Aryans vs Natives
*economic specialization & culture
more important than race
-Class (VARNA) determined by birth
*4 classes formed from God Purusha
-Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya (Aryan)
-Untouchables (outside varna system)
*huge social change in ancient India
*tribal people absorbed by Aryans
*Vaisya Varna = business class
*Sudra Varna = peasant farmers
*creation of untouchables below Sudras
Caste as Jati:
-Jati = occupations, organized as guilds
*blended w/ Varna to create complete Caste sys
*1000's of Jati became primary cell in life
*each caste divided in jatis (sub-castes)
-clearly defined social postion
*marriage/eating only w/in Jati
*duties, rules, obligations
-ritual purity/pollution applied to jati
Functions of Caste:
-local, loyal to territory
*made empire building
*caste subbed for state
-provided some social security
for orphans, widows
-easier to exploit poor
Eurasian social hierarchies in terms of class and caste in India and China
the underlying reasons for the over/under valuing of different classes
Write a reflective summary:
Why was slavery so much more prominent in Greco-Roman civilization than in India or China?
inequalities of slavery and caste
why slavery emerged in first wave civilizations?
Greco-Roman and American slavery in terms of source, race, manumission, roles, and fate
Why did slavery first emerge in the First Civilizations?
-domestication of animals ->model for slavery
-war, patriarchy, private property encouraged slavery
-women captured in war the 1st
Slavery and Civilization
slavery = "social" death:
lack of rights/personal ID
long est. tradition by the
time of Hammurabi
almost all civs had slavery
-varied over place/time
emancipation was common
-Aztec: children of slaves free
-Less common in China
*Convicts and their families
*poor peasants sold their kids
-India: criminals, debtors, war
*domestic, not economically dep
Greco-Roman and American slavery
in terms of source, race, manumission, roles, and fate
Greco-Roman slavery from that of other
How did the inequalities
of slavery differ from
those of caste?
Depended more on slaves
Far more slaves
Participated in a greater range of
Warm-up: "Social inequality was both accepted and resisted in classical civilizations" What evidence might support this statement?
Successful maintenance of social structures based on inequality in every classical civilization...
-slave based society in Mediterranean
-Caste system in India
-Class system in China
Philosophical and religious systems of Classical Civilizations...
Resistance to social inequality on a dramatic scale...
-Spatacus's slave revolt in Roman Empire
-Yellow Turban peasant rebellion in China
-Teachings of Jesus and Buddha
Outline the ways in which the expression of Chinese patriarchy changed over time and why
Differentiate the patriarchies of Athens and Sparta
Chinese patriarchy change over time...what & why?:
-Daoism/Confucian long established thinking in equal terms of pairs of opposites
-now described in gendered and unequal terms...
*Superior symbol YANG (heaven, rulers, strength, rationality, light) as masculine
*Inferior symbol YIN (earth, subjects, weakness, emotion, darkness) as feminine
*Mens domain public/political roles
*Womens domain private/domestic roles
*"3 obediences" woman inferior to...
1st- her father
2nd- her husband
3rd- her son
Differentiate the patriarchies of Athens and Sparta
RAFT: Role- female of Athens/Sparta
Audience- female member of Athens/Sparta
Format- letter (with appropriate tone)
Topic- life as a woman in your respective society
classical civilizations that evolved outside of the more well-known civilizations of Eurasia
the development of civilizations in Africa and the Americas
the factors that make civilizations develop and
they develop differently in some regions
the characteristics of complex civilizations and
whether they could develop without any recognizable centralized control
-“The histories of Africa and the Americas during the classical era largely resemble those of Eurasia.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain why or why not.
-“The particular cultures and societies of Africa and of the Americas discussed in this chapter developed largely in isolation from one another.” What evidence would support this statement, and what might challenge it?
-What generated change in the histories of Africa and the Americas during the classical era?
What makes the histories of Africa and the Americas so different from all of the rest??
Table page 283 (population)
-Read pages 283-288 and take notes directed at responding to the following question...
"How did the history of Meroe and Axum reflect interaction with neighboring civilizations?"
In class note taking-
Read and take C-notes on why/how civ. developed in the Niger River Valley (pg288-289) and how it challenged conventional notions of "civilization"
How did the histories of Axum and Meroe reflect interaction with neighboring civilizations?
Warm-up: Explain how the Niger River Valley Civilization emerged as cities without states.
-Students will share symbolic representations of Meroe/Axum with 2 other pairs of students
-Finally, students will meet with 2 other pairs of students to attempt to infer the meaning of symbols of the opposing civilization
creation of large cities
w/o a state structure;
no imperial system like
little evidence of war, monarchy,
or deep social inequality
In class notes- Read and take C-notes on the ways in which the arrival of Bantu-speaking peoples stimulated cross-cultural interaction. Begin with generalizations and move down toward more supporting details...
Using your notes, create a graphic organizer in the form of a pyramid web like the one below...
Migration into Southern Africa
The World of Bantu Africa
In what ways did Teotihuacan
shape the history of Mesoamerica??
Using the map, list everything you know or can infer/conclude about the city's society.
-the number of pyramids and the centrality of the Feathered Serpent Pyramid
-the dominance of the central north-south street
-the different sizes of houses
-the sheer mass of the place
-the regularity of the layout
Decide on complete notes
-acted as core of a 10,000 square mile territory
-exacted tribute from the surrounding areas
-military presence as far as southern Maya
-Hub for long-distance trade
-Aztec city of the Gods
Moche features of Civ
-architecture, pottery, sculpture,
religious images and painted textiles widely imitated
-Chavin became pilgrimage site and perhaps training center for initiates from distant corners of the region
-at locations 3 weeks or more away by llama caravan, temples were remodeled to resemble that of Chavin
-Chavin religious cult provided for the first time a measure of economic and cultural integration
-Moche dominated a 250 mile stretch of Peru's northern coast, incorporating 13 river valleys and flourished for 700 years beginning in 100c.e.
-Moche economy was rooted in complex irrigation system that required constant upkeep
-Politically, governed by warrior-priests, living atop huge pyramids
-Wealth of the warrior-priest elite and the remarkable artistic skills of Moche craftspeople are reflected in the elaborate burials accorded the rulers. Renowned for metalworking, pottery, weaving and painting.
-settlements linked into trading networks
-long distance trade
-created structures to track the heavens
-adopted maize from Mesoamerica
-Acquired maize from Mesoamerica much earlier and settled into agriculture earlier
-Created kivas as ceremonial centers and networks of roads (religious)
-Smaller urban centers
-started later and did not last as long
-independent agricultural revolution mixed w/ gathering/hunting until arrival of maize after 800 c.e.
-created larger monumental architecture in burial mounds and geometrical earthworks
-Cahokia, largest of mound building settlements
Analyze similarities and differences in techniques of imperial administration in two of the following empires:
-Han China 206 b.c.e.-220 c.e.
-Mauryan/Gupta India 320 b.c.e.-550 c.e.
-Imperial Rome 31 b.c.e.-476 c.e.
HW: Create a chart
-Values of the Roman Republic
>rule of law
>rights of citizens
>absence of pretension
>upright moral behavior
-Protection for plebeians
Victory of Punic Wars:
-vs. Carthage (264-146 bce)
-W. Med control
Each conquest led to more conquests as it created more vulnerabilities
Poor soldiers fought for land, loot and salary
Patricians earned estates, promotions by helping empire building
ARMY- well trained, well fed, well rewarded
Public particip. cheering for those that died; espouses the validity of Athenian democracy and legitimacy of the rule of Pericles...Athens is unique and superior
5th C. BCE (431-430 BCE) end of the 1st year of the Pelop. War w/ Sparta; public funeral service
Athenians mourning the loss/celebrating the service of fallen Athenian soldiers...ALL of GREECE
bolster Athenian pride through the praise of Athenian values as unique in the Classical world...self-centered motive for power; let others know theyre not going down w/o a fight
Pericles..."First Citizen of Athens" written by Thucydides
rally improve morale in the face of great loss
maintain authority in a time of crisis
BIAS- objective perspective?
Pericles Golden Age- populist, manipulative, power hungry, Athenian imperialist
WHILE ATHENS NEVER FULLY ACHIED AN IMPERIAL STATUS, AT THEIR HEIGHT THEY TOUTED THEIR DEMOCRATIC WAYS OF LIFE AS SUPERIOR, WHILE EXTRACTING RESOURCES FROM GREEK CITY-STATES FOLLOWIG THE GRECO-ERSIAN WARS AND RULED OVER A POP. THE MAJORITY OF WHICH CONSISTED OF SLAVES.
What is the American Dream?
What are the underlying values of the American Dream?
3 Part Source Integration:
Intro the source
quote, paraphrase, summarize
Choose your empire:
1. Greek Polis- Athens
2. Greek Polis- Sparta
3. Roman Empire
4. Han Dynasty of China
5. Mauryan Empire of India
Main focus points:
Stability/security of your empire
Role of women
Religion or cultural traditions
Resources (Land, Geography, Natural Resourcs)
Trade/ Economic Power
(500 b.c.e.- 476 c.e.)
**Eastern Half continues for another 1000 years
3 Part Source Integration:
Introduce the source
Insert the citation
Explain the purpose of the citation
How legitimate was Athenian democracy?
OUTLINE of student sample
1. establish time period
2. establish regions
3. establish topic (economic)
1. "Both" industrialize to compete with the West
a. Japan more open
b. Russia more restricted
A. Topic intro
1. est. time again
2. Because West dominated indus. institutions
3. "Both" modernize to compete w/ the West
a. establish foreign investors in indust. nations due to lack of resources
b. urbanized...moving away from agric.
B. Topic intro
1. Japan more open to fully adopt
2. Russia not willing to implement fully
a. social ideas (abolition of forced labor)
-Japan grants more liberties
-Russia restricts liberties more
b. foreign investors
-Japan & USA
-Russia only few to ensure sovereignty
1. Restate thesis
a. Japan more open...econ increases quicker
b. Russia more limited...econ grows slower
Greek Polis- Athens and Sparta
Mauryan Empire of India