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Physical Ed


Luke Pedras

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Physical Ed

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE Training innovations and equipment advances are two of the ways technology can be used to improve performance and ensure safety. Training innovations are procedures, tools and processes that can be used to investigate, scrutinise and refine skills and movement to improve performance. Training innovations also supports safety and control of skills and movements as harmful faults and mistakes can be identified through the technology and corrected. Equipment advances are equipment and tool developments that are used to further aid an athlete in improving their performance, by assisting them in training and competition. Equipment advances can also promote safety through the new equipment available, ensuring the wellbeing of the athlete is maintained. Both training innovations and equipment advances assist training and competition performance of an athlete as they are able to measure, record, analyse and support performance, allowing them to examine and scrutinise their skills and movement, to further improve and develop upon them. Some athletes may not be able to have access to all the up-to-date training innovations or equipment advances due to economical and geographic constraints so they may have to settle for second best, which can cause some unfairness in much sport competitions. Some training innovations and equipment advances that have been introduced recently of which athlete may have access to include: Recently, technology has evolved and revolutionised sport, changing the way athlete’s train, play and recover. Athletes now have access to advanced equipment and resources to aid in improving performance (forming the athlete into a superior competitor) and making skill execution easier and safer (ensuring the health of the athlete is maintained through all phases of activity). Sport technology is also used to improve the game for spectators, allowing them to view the sport in varying ways and to aid referees and adjudicators in making accurate verdicts and rulings. Synthetic playing surfaces (artificial grass) are becoming increasingly popular in use of sports such as cricket, golf, bowls, tennis and hockey. The artificial grass is made of polyester and rubber to replicate the characteristics of natural grass. By using this sport environmental technology, fields can be irrigated, to ensure athletes play on a safe pitch. A natural grass pitch, after experiencing a few days of rain, would become muddy and slippery and could disallow athlete’s access to train (which disallows them to improve their performance), whereas an artificial grass field can rid the water through hidden irrigation and provide a muddy free field where athletes can train and improve their performance (‘Boks forced to train indoors after failing to find an oval that didn't resemble a pool.’ Taken from 20th July Daily Telegraph). An artificial grass field will also be more safe compared to a conventional grass field, as it will be less muddy and wont be as slippery, so athletes wont need to worry about falling over and injuring themselves. -Playing surfaces (synthetic grass pitches, fields and tracks) The Hi-Tec CDT Superpower Golf Shoe is the worlds most technologically advanced power enhancing golf shoe that utilises biomechanical technology. The ‘Superpower’ golf shoe provides athletes with better grip (from extra, customisable cleats and dams), stability (from the shoe being wider and lower to the ground) and torsional control (from roll bars and swing dams). Better grip and balance gives athlete’s the opportunity to hit the ball further and maintain consistency within shots and more support and stability, athletes can hit the ball harder and further, increasing their performance within the game. The shoe also relieves a lot of pressure placed upon an athlete’s knee in the backswing and downswing through a TPU outsole, a third cleat and a power bridge, minimising pressure and ensuring good knee position and support is maintained throughout all movements, ensuring safety within the sport (A professional golfer experiencing knee pain can not only utilise the shoe to further improve their performance, but also use it to support their knee through all their movements). -Clothing (swimsuits, football boots and golf shoes) The Speedo LZR Racer suit is a high quality swimsuit manufactured by Speedo with the help of NASA and the AIS, which utilises superior, seamless swimwear fabric. The suit increases buoyancy (allowing the swimmer to sit above the water), increases efficiency of oxygen to the muscles (to allow them to work harder and longer) and dramatically reduces drag from a tight fit (which would usually slow them down) from all of which, improve the performance of the athlete, (an athlete wearing a Speedo LZR Racer suit will have a huge performance advantage over another athlete that wears a generic swimsuit brand as they are able to work harder and swim faster). The MOVEO Neck Brace is a motocross neck brace that integrates safety and comfort with design and ergonomic integration. The neck brace was created, ‘with the aim to protect users both in their daily commuting, as in their racing, motocross, and adventure activities’ taken from moveosafety.com/en/comfort. The MOVEO Neck Brace is light, manageable and allows freedom of movement without compromising neck and spine safety. The brace is formed around years of research in, ‘accidentology’ and biomechanical studies to understand in depth what neck injuries are and how they are caused. The brace reduces hyperflexion, hyperextension, lateral hyperflexion, posterior hypertranslation and vertical forces described below, that a motocross athlete might experience while competing in events or during accidents. The brace greatly reduces the risk of serious injury to the neck and spine and is an essential piece of equipment to ensure safety within the sport (an amateur motocross rider can reduce their risk of neck and spine injury if they wear a neck brace as they are protected if they ever have a collision or fall off their bike). -Protective equipment, (helmets, mouthguards, shin pads, headgear and tape straps) Calorieking.com.au is an Australian calorie calculator and counter free for use, for all Australians. The websites mission is to, ‘provide the best information, tools and education to Australians to help them conquer their weight’ taken from calorieking.com.au/goal. The site provides accurate information to users and easy to use tools, which educate users on the foods they should consume and the amount of exercise they should engage in. In maintain a healthy weight range and overall wellbeing using the website, an athlete can improve their performance and their health, enabling them to reach optimum performances and achievements. The site can also maintain safety as it helps manage weight control (from being under or overweight) by providing meals and diets that will help a person gain or lose weight in a safe and controlled manner, (an unfit amateur athlete training for the City2Surf will be able to use calorieking.com.au (which will provide them a healthy, nutritious diet an exercise regime) to become fit and improve their performance to be able to achieve the City2Surf). -Internet, (interactive sport and food websites) Hawk-Eye is a system that is commonly used within tennis and cricket stadiums that utilises a selection of high-speed cameras that track the ball as it is in motion. A computer collects all the 2D images from the cameras that have tracked the ball and calculates the balls speed and trajectory when it is in motion. The 2D images are then converted into virtual 3D images that can be used to figure out the balls speed and the position of the ball at certain places (can be used to check if a ball was in or out of the court as it bounced after a serve or where if a batter is out from a LBW (leg before wicket)). By analysing the serves, bowls and shot played in a game using Hawk-Eye, athletes can scrutinise and analyse key aspects of the match (such as the bounce after their serve or their bowl) to further improve their performance, (a professional cricketer can utilise hawk-eye to view his spin bowl to see if he is bowling at the right speed and at the right angle (of which he can then change to improve performance)). -Infrastructure technology at sporting venues, (replay screens and cameras and timing gates) The Stealth Speed baseball bat has revolutionised the use of carbon fibre bats and is improving baseball athlete’s performances dramatically. Laser precision manufacturing systems control the amount of mass in the barrel, making it lighter and easier to swing. From the reduction in mass compared to normal carbon bats, athletes can achieve faster swings speed to hit balls further and improve their batting performance. The barrel is also made from multiple sheets (plysets) of composite material and glass coated in a resin to form a strong, light durable barrel which allows for better bat to ball impact and in effect, sending the ball further. Rubber elastomeric materials are used to join the barrel and handle while keeping the two pieces isolated to each other. As the ball hits the bat, vibrations travel towards the handle but dissipate through the rubber connection, allowing the barrel to not lose energy. This then means that the ball experiences a higher exit speed from the barrel, which sends the ball further. Through all these modifications of the Stealth Speed baseball bat, an athlete will be able to improve their batting performance in baseball, (an athlete using a Stealth Speed baseball bat will be able to hit the ball further and harder compared to someone who owns a generic branded bat). -Equipment improvements and modifications (improved cycle bikes, boats, bats and balls) Golf balls were first made from solid timber that were circular in shape and had negligible aerodynamic properties. These days, golf balls have been totally revolutionised. The balls are now are dimpled as they experience half the drag as smooth ones without dimples, (Callaway golf balls utilises hexagonal dimples for ‘reduced drag and longer, more efficient ball flight’ taken from www.callawaygolf.com/Global/en-US/Innovation/GolfBall Technology/HEXAerodynamics). Golf balls are also now made with varying layers, depending on the style of the golfer. In most balls, the inner core is soft, allowing the ball to compress and deform when it is hit to allow it to go further, and the outer core ensures that it roughly retains it shape. The layers in between these differ from each ball as certain golf balls suit different swing and putting styles, (a golfer that is great at driving the ball down the course at high speeds would use a two layered golf ball whereas as a three layered ball would be used by someone who favours distance as well as high spin (spin can be used to direct the ball, (left spin means it will curve to the left)). Testing procedures like wind tunnels are used within cycling to accurately measure the forces acting on cyclists when traveling at high speeds or competing against high intensity winds. Different forces and speeds of wind can be applied to suit the loads expected to be faced by the cyclist. Athletes can find the best bicycle setup and cycling position to find what creates the least amount of wind drag and resistance by analysing data and watching recorded wind tunnel tests, which will improve the performance of the athlete, (a Tour De France athlete can test their bike configuration and cycling position against different wind environments and decide which will fit the different stages of the race so they can improve their overall performance). -Testing procedures, (climate chambers, float tanks, lactate threshold testing, wind tunnels and sprint gates) Lactate threshold testing is used within many endurance sports, which measures the amount of lactate that is present within the blood. This measure is used to determine the point at which lactate starts to accumulate within the blood. Athletes want to find this point because as it occurs, ventilation rates increase, a burning sensation is felt and performance starts to deteriorate. Athletes can push back this point of lactate accumulation through training to allow which allows them further work at a high intensity for a longer period of time - improving their performance. Tests can be easily undertaken on field / site, just as a diabetic, from a drop of blood taken at a fingertip and a portable lactate analyser which determines the amount of lactate present in the blood, (can also be done in a sport laboratory with complex equipment and procedures), (a professional rower can use lactate threshold tests to determine the point at which lactate accumulates within their blood. After determining this point, the rower can train this point to further delay the onset of the lactate so they can perform at a high intensity for a longer period of time). -Biofeedback, (lactate threshold training) New and advanced nutrition foods are used regularly in many sports that require large amounts of energy for extended periods of time (like running, cycling, rugby and tennis). Lucozade Sport Body Fuel gel provides athletes with a convenient, concentrated source of carbohydrates that replaces diminished fuel sources quickly, helping to improve overall performance as the athlete can maintain their high level of performance for an extended period. Lucozade Sports Body Fuel gel also provides the body with valuable nutrients that may be lost during performance (like potassium and sodium lost from perspiration) which are important for maintaining peak performance, (a marathon runner will be able to improve their performance in the last two hours of a race by ingesting Sports Body Fuel gel after already running for two hours as it will replenish their main fuel source (carbohydrates) and provide them essential nutrients they may have lost). -Nutrition advances, (protein shakes, bars and electrolyte bars) Indoor golf simulated environment facilities has become increasingly popular as they have many benefits compared to outdoor gold course environments. The biggest advantage of a simulated environment is that indoor golf centres have the latest technology that can record and display swing angles and speed, which can be analysed to improve performance. Indoor centres also gives the athlete customised feedback relating to their swing, which can help them improve the skill. Indoor facilities can also be used all year round, even when its raining, snowing or hailing as it is protected form the elements. Outdoor facilities will be shut during these times, as athlete will not be able to perform during these times, (an amateur golfer can improve their performance through practicing in a virtual indoor golf centre where he can get feedback on his performance and some tips and hints of how to improve his swing). -Training facilities, (synthetic surfaces and simulated environments) Biomechanical analysis is used to improve performance and promote safety. Through the use of video analysis and photographic equipment, skills such as running, swimming, jumping and throwing are seen through comparative images and slow motion replays, which allows them to be subjected to a high degree of inspection and examination. The skills are explored through in small parts where problems can be identified and corrected to make them more biomechanically efficient. Biomechanical analysis is also used to detect potentially harmful or incorrect actions within skill, which could cause injury. These movements are brought to the attention of the athlete where they are corrected to improve safety and efficiency within the skill, (the Australian Wallabies have utilised biomechanical analysis by using a Blackberry Playbook to capture and film a scrum during practice. After the scrum is completed, the footage is immediately watched and problems and techniques are fixed on the spot, taken from the Australian Daily Telegraph). -Biomechanical analysis through video analysis and photographic equipment LPGA star Natalie Gulbis also utilises biomechanical analysis to improve and refine her performance in golf. The female golfer uses the TaylorMade Performance Lab in Orlando, Florida where the TaylorMade’s MATT system (Motion Analysis Technology by TaylorMade) is stationed to record her golf swing and analyse it for faults and flaws. The 400 Series Force Plate uses force plate technology in conjunction with the worlds best measurements software, BMS (Ballistic Measurement System) to report and analyse jump heights, upward thrust, displacement and force loading measurements. Vertical jumps (single or multiple) of an athlete can be accurately measured and analysed using the force plate which allows them to scrutinise and improve their movement and performance. In conjunction with a laptop, an athlete can acquire valuable information on leg extensor strength qualities through variables like peak and average force, peak velocity, jump height and flight to contact ratio when they are testing their vertical jump, (a high jumper can measure a single vertical jump with the force plate and examine what muscles need to be trained or what types of training should be undertaken upon the legs to improve the velocity, height and power of their jump to improve their performance in competition). -Fitness equipment, (weight machines and force plates) The De-load harness is a valuable piece of technology that utilises a winch and pulley system in conjunction with a harness and shock absorbing bands that reduces the mass of an athlete to help them safely recover from injuries (by using active recovery). Through the De-load harness, athletes are able to recover from soft tissue injuries, (and later stages of some hard tissue injuries) faster and resume their fitness training regime earlier which can help them build up their performance level to what it prior to the injury. The harness is often used in rehab programs for amateur and professional athletes recovering from knee, groin and ankle injuries and is also used to prevent the onset of Osteitis pubis (inflammation of the pubis) and injuries to the ankles, knees and hip, (usually from running on hard surfaces). The harness works by allowing injured athletes to comfortably run at high intensity speeds without further injuring themselves as they de-loaded, and are restricted with the amount of pressure and strain they place on their injury, (which allows them to recover faster as the injury is strengthened). The De-load harness can also assist to improve Motor Neural functions and to improve muscular tone of athletes that have suffered from multiple sclerosis (disorder affecting movement), muscular dystrophy (weakening and waste away of muscles), strokes (interruption of blood supply to brain affecting motor functioning) and friedreich's ataxia (hereditary loss of balance and coordination). -Rehabilitation equipment, (artificial limbs (prosthetics), ultrasound and de-load harnesses) AND SAFETY With Neckbrace Without Neckbrace Cyclist using a wind tunnel to determine a
good aerodynamic cycling position -ENOTES. 2010. Artificial Turf. www.enotes.com/how-products-encyclopedia/artificial-turf (Accessed 23 July)
-INVODO. 2009. HiTec CDT Superpower Golf Shoe. www.invodo.com/Hi-Tec-CDT-Superpower-Golf-Shoe/p/Z0GP1022 (Accessed 23 July)
-MOTOCROSS. 2011. Neck Braces. www.motocrossgiant.com/Troy_Lee_Designs_Signature_ Series_Leatt_ADVenture_p/1211-0008tl.htm (Accessed 23 July)
-MOVEO. 2011. Safety. www.moveosafety.com/en/safety (Accessed 23 July)http://www.calorieking.com.au/
-LSWT. 2010. Testing. www.lswt.com/cycling.php (Accessed 23 July)
-FOOD STOP. 2011. Fuel Gel. www.lucozadeshop.com/body-fuel-gel/03617.html (Accessed 24 July)
-ARTICLEBLISS. 2010. Indoor Golf. www.articlebliss.com/Art/703945/286/Indoor-Golf-is-Just-Like-the-Real-Thing.html (Accessed 24 July)
-FITTECH. 2011. Weight Plate and De-Load. www.fittech.com.au/ (Accessed 24 July)
-GOLF GUIDE. 2009. Golf Ball Guide. www.golfballguide.com/golf_ball_review.htm (Accessed 24 July)
-School worksheets, Use of Technology, (Received 12 July)
-Boyd, A. 2010. PDHPE In Focus. Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd
-Ruskin, R. 2009. Outcomes 2 HSC. Queensland: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Bibliography The End

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