Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Information and Information Systems original version

No description
by

Rong-An Shang

on 29 February 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Information and Information Systems original version

Information,
Information Systems, and Organizational Information Systems

Organizational view
System (process) view
Decision view
Data
Information
Process
Decision
Action
Descriptions of an object or event.
The value of attributes of an
object or event
organized or structured data,
which has been processed in such a way that the information now has relevance for a specific purpose or context, and is therefore meaningful, valuable, useful and relevant
Capture
Compute
Compare
Format
Storage
Distribute
Rational Decision Making
Satisficing Decision Making
find the
Information Requirement
Information is only meaningful for those people who need it.

People only see what they are prepared to see”
By Emerson, Journals, 1863
"What information consumes is rather obvious:
it consumes the attention of its recipients.
Hence, a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently
among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it."

-Herbert Simon (1916 – 2001)
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics 1978
ACM's Turing Award 1975
National Medal of Science 1986
“We have spent a great deal of time and money bringing water to the horse, but we don’t even know if he’s thirsty, and we have no idea to get him to drink”
A Pacific Bell Manager
Effective information management
must begin by thinking about
how people use information
– not with how people use machines

Thomas Davenport, 1994
the decision-maker follow the steps, and:
Intelligence.
must gather
all
relevant data and interpret it in an unbiased manner

Design.
must identify
all
feasible alternatives and identify an explicit set of criteria for selecting between them

Choice.
choose amongst alternatives based on a systematic assessment using explicit weightings of the importance of key criteria

Implementation.
Under the constrains of
limit time,
limit information,
limit information processing capability,

decision maker only gather information to
look for satisficing decision
process
action
decision
detect
Storage
observe
data
information
Environment
data has to be processed to be meaningful
for the constrains of limited rationality
differentiation and integration
Structurization
information transmission and manipulation
Traditional vision
Organization as an
information processing machine
management is a process of plan and control

divide managers and workers
plan &
control
operation
operation
plan and
control
plan and
control
New vision
providing information to people who need it

to increase responsibility
The "good" information for the people

Accuracy.
Is the data expressed to a suitable level of accuracy?
Age.
Is the data timely?
Time Horizon.
Is data relevant to a particular time period?
Level of Summarisation.
Is the data summarised to an appropriate level of aggregation?
Completeness.
How completely does the data cover the domain?
Accessibility.
Is the data accessible?
Relevance.
Is the data relevant to the decision to be made?
information processing capability
is
the foundation of an adaptive system
and a learning system

sense and adapt to the changing environment

information reduce uncertainty
disturb
strategic
management
tactical management
operational management
large
time horizon
small
time horizon
summary
data
detailed
data
unstructured
problem
structured
problem
Decisions
Processes
Organization

Organizational change
Information
technology

Structured vs unstructured problem
and semi-structured problem
Structured
with predefined and clear goals, criteria, and methods to reach the desired state.

Unstructured
which its existing state and the desired state are unclear and, hence, methods of reaching the desired state cannot be found.
Types of Business Information Systems
Transaction Processing Systems
Management Information Systems
Executive
Information Systems
Decision Support
Systems
Functional Systems
Accounting, Manufacturing, ...

Levels of Systems
Transaction Processing Systems
Management Information Systems
Decision Support Systems
Serve middle management, or staff depratment
Support nonroutine decision making
Spreadsheet
investment decision
What if analysis
Example: What is impact on production schedule if December sales doubled?
Use external information as well data from TPS and MIS
with model base, data base, and interactive user interface
Executive Information Systems
Support senior management
Address nonroutine decisions requiring judgment, evaluation, and insight
Incorporate data about external events (e.g. new tax laws or competitors) as well as summarized information from internal MIS and DSS
May be integrated with communication tools
Less analytics
With good graphic user interface
Example: ESS that provides minute-to-minute view of firm’s financial performance as measured by working capital, accounts receivable, accounts payable, cash flow, and inventory,
Dashboard
Perform and record daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business
Examples: sales order entry, payroll, shipping
Allow managers to monitor status of operations and relations with external environment
Serve operational levels
Serve predefined, structured goals and decision making
Serve middle management
Provide reports on firm’s current performance, based on data from TPS.
Provide answers to routine questions with predefined procedure for answering them.
Typically have little analytic capability
frontend
backend
Technology dimension
of Information Systems
Computer hardware
and
software
Data
management technology
Networking
and telecommunications technology
Networks, the Internet, intranets and extranets, World Wide Web

IT infrastructure

provides platform that system is built on
Organizational dimension

of
Information Systems
Information technology and organizations influence one another

Complex relationship influenced by organization’s structure, processes, politics, culture, environment, and management decisions
Management dimension
of
Information System
Managing effective use of information system
to support managers at different levels in organization to achieve better decisions,
to increase efficiency and effectiveness
to gain competitive advantage or sustain survival
Business view
The changing business environment
driven by the new technology

both challenges and opportunities

Some current emerging technologies
Wireless technology

Web 2.0 technologies
user generate content, social network service

Cloud computing
mobile digital platform allow more distributed work, decision-making, and collaboration

Ubiquitous computing
any time, any where, any device,
any service, and all security
The Internet of Things
Growing interdependence between
ability to use
information technology
and
ability to
implement corporate strategies
and
achieve
corporate goals
Improved decision making
Operational excellence

New products, services, and business models
Customer and supplier intimacy

Competitive advantage
Survival
Companies invest heavily in IS to
achieve six strategic business objectives
Improving decision making
without accurate and timely information,
managers must use forecasts, guesses, and luck
and lead to
over or underproduction of goods and services
misallocation of resources
poor response times
poor outcomes, raise costs, lose customers
Operational Excellence
Improvement of efficiency to attain higher profitability
increase productivity
reduce inventory
increase turnover rate
effective replenishment system
New products, services, and business models
Business model
describes how company produces, delivers, and sells product or service to create wealth

Information systems and technology a major enabling tool for new products, services, business models

Ex: Apple’s iPod, iTunes, and iPhone, Internet-based DVD rentals, PChome, Google, Facebook, ...
by Rong-An Shang
Dept. of Business Administration
Soochow University

System
A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole

for a specific purpose or to carry out a specific activity

The black box:
Controled system
feedback control system

positive loop vs negative loop
Information system
Input
Process
Output
Memory


New technology
connection
process
input
output
process
control signal
energy and
material
output
process
control
unit
input
output
control
signal
sensor
process
input
output
memory
connection
About

how do we know,
and why do we need to know

- Peter Drucker
Management Challenges for the 21st Century, 1999
"So far, for fifty years, Information Technology has centered on DATA -their collection, storage, transmission, presentation. It has focused on the 'T' in 'IT'.

The new information revolutions focus on the 'I'. They ask, 'What is the
MEANING
of information and its
PURPOSE
?'

And this is leading rapidly to redefining the tasks to be done with the help of information and, with it, to redefining the institutions that do these tasks."
http://www.google.com/publicdata
The original root of the word "information" is the Latin word
informare
, which means
to fashion, shape, or create, to give form to
.

Information is
an idea that has been given a form
, such as the spoken or written word.

It is a means of representing an image or thought so that it can
be communicated from one mind to another
.

Rather than worrying about all the information afloat in the world, we must ask ourselves
what matters to us
,
what do we want to know
.

It's having ideas and learning to deal with issues that is important,
not accumulating lots and lots of data
.

--Theodore Roszak
Specialization and divisionalization
the meaning of a datum can only be shown
when it is linked with a specific context
"Where is the life we have lost in living ?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge ?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information ?"

T. S. Eliot (1988-1965)
Poet and critic,
the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1948
Wisdom: understanding principles, values,…


Knowledge: understanding patterns, rules,…


Information: understanding relations


Data: symbols or signs,
representing stimuli or signals,
Full transcript