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Ghost Dance Movement

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Ximena Cespedes

on 16 October 2013

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Transcript of Ghost Dance Movement

Ghost Dance Movement

Hopes of the Ghost Dance Movement
In a time when Native Americans were being very influenced by White men and their religions, the Ghost Dance Movement was one of the only "religions" that focused on the restoration of the past rather than a new future.
Founding History
Matter of the Ghost Dance
"When you get home you must begin a dance and continue for five days. Dance for four successive nights, and on the last night continue dancing until the morning of the fifth day, when all must bathe in the river and then return to their homes. You must all do this in the same way. I want you to dance every six weeks. Make a feast at the dance and have food that everybody may eat."
Wounded Knee
December 29, 1890
South Dakota residents grew extremely worried that the Indians were preparing for a battle, and demanded that the Sioux Indians stop their ritual.
Standing Rock
Kicking Bear reached out to Sitting Bull, the medicine man of Standing Rock located near present day Sioux Falls, SD. He told him about the beliefs surrounding the Ghost Dance movement.
Arapaho No. 1
The Earth would swallow up the White man, leaving the Native Americans to take control of the land.
Native Americans who had passed away would be resurected and help in the restoration of the old ways.
Lakota Indians refused
The Paiute Prophet
The Original Ghost Dance Movement
Founded by Wodziwob, which translates to Gray Hair
Chanting
Wovoka claimed that the performance of this dance would bring about good things.
Women and men alike participated in the Ghost Dance.
There were no instruments in this dance.
It was performed only with the chanting and singing of the people.
The Ghost Dance Shirt
It was to be worn at all times.
During the dance, it would be worn on the exterior.
At all other times, it was to be worn underneath.
It was painted with the images from visions of the people who wore them.
Native Americans believed these shirts to be bulletproof.
Implementation
Sitting Bull was skeptical about the Dance's effects.
He also knew about the government's increasing worry.
American troops were beginning to be called in to check out the situation
Sitting Bull did not want his tribe to involved in that, fearing that death would ensue.
Kicking Bear informed him that wearing the Ghost Dance shirt made you impervious to the White man's bullets.
Sitting Bull saw no reason to further oppose the institution of the Ghost Dance.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
The supply of Buffalo would be replenished.
Wovoka, a Paiute rancher, was born in 1854 near Sierra Nevada.
He was 16 when his father, Tavibo, passed away.
This period of time was when he grew close to the family of David Wilson, who later renamed Wovoka Jack Wilson.
One day, during a solar eclipse on New Year's Day, he had a vision.
Wovoka promised that the Paiute people would once again be in control of their world, but only if they performed this dance, known as the Ghost Dance.
In response to this vision, Wovoka founded the Ghost Dance Movement.
"When the Sun died, I went upto Heaven and saw God and all the people who had died a long time ago. God told me to come back and tell my people they must be good and love one another, and not fight, or steal or lie. He gave me this dance to give to my people."
Historians believe Wovoka to have been involved in Wodziwob's original movement
They were the most enthusiastic followers of the Ghost Dance.
Kicking Bear and Short Bull traveled to Wovoka to learn about the Ghost Dance.
Instead of maintaining Wovoka's vision of peace, they favored a militaristic view of the Dance.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs grew worried about the Ghost Dance on the Lakota reservation.
Among the Lakota
Many government officials feared that Standing Rock was becoming as militant as the Lakota reservation, and so they sent 43 policemen to bring in Sitting Bull, who they believed to be at fault.
They draggd him out of his bed just as dawn approached, and a gunfight ensued.
SItting Bull was killed.
The Death of Sitting Bull
Upon arrival, US soldiers surrounded the Indians
Indians agreed to be relocated to Wounded Knee Creek
Locals thought they were preparing to attack
Ghost Dancers feared conflict and left their reservation
Locals called US troops for help
Leaders of the US Army's 7th Calvary were heatedly arguing with Big Foot, a chief of the Lakota Sioux and Sitting Bull's half brother, who was battling pneumonia in his tent.
Amidst the discussion, a shot went off.
American soldiers began to open fire on the Indians.
Those who tried to run away to a neighboring tribe were killed in the crossfire.
33 US soldiers died
150 to 290 Indians died, all in a matter of minutes
Aftermath
20 Medals of Honor were given to soldiers who survived the massacre.
However, soon, people realized that these events were nothing but massacre.
Previously, many people referred to this event as the Battle at Wounded Knee.
Wounded Knee was the end of the Ghost Dance Movement as well as one of the last Indian Wars.
It was obvious to Ghost Dancers nationwide that the "bulletproof" shirts were ineffective.
http://ia600309.us.archive.org/2/items/CollectedWorksOfJamesMooney/16-ArapahoNo.1.GhostDance1894_64kb.mp3
Eyehe'! Nä'nisa'na
O, my children!
Eyehe'! Nä'nisa'na,
Eyehe'! Nä'nisa'na,
Hi'nä chä'sa' äticha'ni'na He'eye'!
Hi'nä chä'sa' äticha'ni'na He'eye'!
Na'hani nä'nithä'tuhû'na He'eye'!
Na'hani nä'nithä'tuhû'na He'eye'!
Bi'taa'wu' da'naa'bäna'wa He'eye'!
Bi'taa'wu' da'naa'bäna'wa He'eye'!

O, my children!
O, my children!
Here is another of your pipes—He'eye'!
Here is another of your pipes—He'eye'!
Look! thus I shouted—He'eye'!
Look! thus I shouted—He'eye'!
When I moved the earth—He'eye'!!
When I moved the earth—He'eye'!

A presentation by Ximena Céspedes, Danielle Parks, and Serynna Reyes
Full transcript