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Chris Gnam

on 2 December 2013

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Relation to Evolutionary Biology
-Resource allocation as as a result of differences in making the spider webs

-Developed to make spider webs differently

-Similar homologies for making gum footed lined webs within the species of Nesticidae and Theridiidae, however differentations in how the webs retreat

-Central retreat rather than peripheral retreat of the web
Species Differentiation because of Allocation
Monophyletic Phylogeny
Evolution is occuring between species: “‘gum foot’ web of theri- diid-nesticid lineage is monophyletic and derived from a sheet’.”

All come from a common ancestor, but have branched into changes within species
The theridiid webs were a result of ecological factors: resource allocation
The theridiid webs are constructed gradually, segmented over many days, and therefore have a longer life span and last longer.
So the orb webs were reduced, which shows us that evolution has occurred, because of resource allocation.
Evolution is supported by how the ecology has morphed the spider webs.
Concerning Ecology
Context of Spiders

Spiders are other wise known as "sit and wait" predators.

Prey selection is divided into (3) phases
1: Selection of the Web Site and Construction

2: Waiting for the prey to be caught

3: Finally attacking the prey

Web Site Selection
Spiders construct their webs based on factors such as the frequency in which the prey visits, light intensity and population of prey.
Many people believe that spiders are limited to certain insects in their diets. However spiders actually have a strategic way of building their webs.
How Spider Webs are Built
Video showing a banana spider weaving its' web.
Fun Facts and Statistics
The spider family has existed on earth for 350 million years
The webs we usually see outside are orb-webs
All spiders are venomous except one family,Uloboridae
Not all spiders spin webs
Only 2% of the 63,000 species of arachnids are harmful to humans
There are 40,000 species worldwide, 3,800 in the US
Spiders generally live 1-2 years , The oldest spider is 28 years old
1: "Jonathan Coleman on Nanotubes and Graphene - ScienceWatch.com." Jonathan Coleman on Nanotubes and Graphene - ScienceWatch.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.

2: "The Masterful Design of Spider Webs." The Masterful Design of Spider Webs. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.

3: Research Areas." Nsf.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.

4: Chandler, David L. "How Spider Webs Achieve Their Strength." MIT's News Office. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.

5: Fritz Vollrath, Spiders’ webs, Current Biology, Volume 15, Issue 10, 24 May 2005, Pages R364-R365

6: Benjamin, Suresh P., and Samuel Zschokke. "Webs of Theridiid Spiders: Construction, Structure and Evolution." - BENJAMIN. Linnean Society, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013.

7: Evans, David L., and Justin O. Schmidt. "Prey Selection in Web Building Spiders and Evolution of Prey Defenses." Insect Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey and Predators. Albany: State University of New York, 1990. 93-95. Print.

8: Kaston, B. J., and Elizabeth Kaston. How to Know the Spiders; Pictured-keys for Determining the More Common Spiders, with Suggestions for Collecting and Studying Them,. Dubuque: W.C. Brown, 1953. Print

9: Johnny, Johnny. "Arachnophobia Facts & Statistics." Arachnophobia Facts & Statistics. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

10: Hadley, Debbie. "10 Fascinating Facts About Spiders." About.com Insects. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

11: Daily Telegraph Reporter. "World's Oldest Animals." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

12: United States. Department of Agriculture. Northern Research Station. By Daniel T. Jennings. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.
Scientists are trying to recreate fibers

Strength due to proteins and design

Webs strengthen after damage

Radial symmetry is a major reason for strength
Why we study Webs
Evolution can be seen through the change in web design

Many different types all with different properties

More complex then ever expected

Use the attributes of spiders to advance in human technology
Spider Web Strength
Incredible strength of the spider silk

The ability to soften/stretch and return to stiff strength

If part of a web is damaged, the damage is contained to that area

"localized damage over loss of structural integrity"
Spider Web Design
Different species of spider results in different web designs and strengths

Prey type is determining factor

One of the strongest natural fibers

Four common types of web

Extreme extendability for catching prey

6, 2
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