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Vinyl Records - PS#2
Transcript of Vinyl Records - PS#2
THE HISTORY and PRODUCTION of
Originated with the phonautograph by Léon Scott in 1857
The phonautograph could visually record soundwaves on paper but could not transmit audio
It was not until 1877 when Thomas Edison invented the phonograph that was capable of both recording and reproducing sound
Edison used tinfoil as a recording medium
The gramophone record, commonly known today as the 'vinyl' record is an analog sound storage medium
The record consists of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove
Typically come in three different sizes: 12-inch, 10-inch & 7-inch (measured by diameter)
Three different rotation speeds: 33 1 ⁄ 3 rpm, 78rpm & 45rpm
WASHINGTON DC. 1923 ( currently McCormick & Schmick's)
The phonograph record was the primary medium used for music reproduction during most of the 20th century.
It replaced the phonograph cylinder, with which it had co-existed, by the 1920s.
German record company Deutsche Grammophon is often said to have pioneered the "album" in 1908 when it released the complete recording of the opera 'Carmen'
By 1910 empty sleeves with paperboard or leather covers were sold as "record albums" that customers could use to store their records
These "albums" came in both 10-inch and 12-inch sizes
They were wider and taller than the records to allow them to be placed on a shelf upright
Starting in 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or genre in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside
Most albums included 3-4 records, with two sides each making 6-8 songs per album
The 12-inch vinyl LP era began in 1949, a single record often had the same number of songs as a typical 78
PRODUCTION & MANUFACTURING
First a "master" record is cut from aluminum,
sanded down and polished smooth
Then covered with a lacquer - (similar to nail polish).. This creates a veneer that eventually hardens
The veneer is then thoroughly inspected
Rejection rate is 50% due to flaws ..they are recycled
A hydraulic puncher cuts a hole and a ring is applied to center
This is done to space the master discs apart
Sent to studio and placed on a "lathe" which cuts the audio into the vinyl
An engineer uses a microscope and cutter
The lathe cuts the leading groove and the music is then transmitted as the cuts are
The recording is one continuous groove.
A computer monitors the spacing between the grooves
Bass lines take up most space often take up the most space
This process provides a warmer recording with more depth than a digital replication
The master disc is then used to produce impressions
In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by 85% between 2006 and 2007 and by 89% between 2007 and 2008
Sales have continued to rise into 2010 with about 2.8 million sold
In 2011 consumers were willing to pay on average $25.81 for a single vinyl record as opposed to $12.38 for a CD and $10.76for a digital download
In the United States- new vinyl releases often return a larger profit margin and in many cases cause the price of digital downloads to go down
Bleecker Street Records
239 Bleecker St New York, NY 10014
Princeton Record Exchange
20 S Tulane St, Princeton, NJ 08542